Citation Information :
Karthikeyan P, Sivanand N, Vijayan N, Latheef MN, Mehta SD, Mukilan S. Understanding the Role of Coronavirus for Otorhinolaryngologists Based on Current Scientific Evidence: A Literature Review. 2021; 10 (2):31-35.
Aim and objective: The novel coronavirus pandemic has resulted in telemedicine becoming a commonplace for patient care. Being a novel disease, and there are still multiple opinions and differences in all the treatment protocols and investigations followed, due to the vast amount of literature available. A consolidated review of all the literature relating to each field is needed, so that it can be accessed and used easily by upcoming treating doctors and researchers for managing coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). A review of published literature was done to systemically analyze the symptoms, investigations, and treatment protocols.
Study design: Systematic literature review.
Materials and methods: One hundred randomized, clinical, and experimental trials were reviewed by us. These trials were conducted since the first instance of COVID-19 in December 2019. A systemic literature review was done of all the PubMed indexed journals published between January 2020 and August 2020 using keywords COVID-19, coronavirus, and otorhinolaryngology, with use of World Health Organization website for references of official manuals and protocols, published in the English language.
Results: From 100 original articles screened, all were systematically categorized into clinical features, investigations, and treatment. All the clinical features were described as early and late-onset symptoms. Investigations and various methods for evaluation were described in detail. Also, specific investigations for each clinical symptom like loss of smell and taste were also described. Data was insufficient for meta-analysis.
Conclusions: Preventive measures and early mitigation are essential in breaking the chain. The current review of the literature suggests the preventive measures in the community with the most efficacy include proper hand hygiene, such as washing hands frequently with soap and water or using an alcohol-based hand rub with 60% isopropyl alcohol or more, and to avoid touching the face. This may prevent the transmission of the pathogen to the respiratory tract and thereby prevent the spread of this fatal disease.
Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet 2020;395(10223):497–506. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5.
Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, Li X, Yang B, Song J, et al. A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. N Engl J Med 2020;382(8):727–733. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001017. PMID: 31978945.
Pongpirul WA, Pongpirul K, Ratnarathon AC, Prasithsirikul W. Journey of a Thai taxi driver and novel coronavirus. N Engl J Med 2020;382(11):1067–1068. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc2001621. PMID: 32050060.
World Health Organization (WHO). Situation report–141 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) June 9, 2020. Geneva: WHO. Available from: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/situation-reports/ [Accessed: June 10, 2020].
Bousquet J, Jutel M, Akdis CA, Klimek L, Pfaar O, Nadeau KC, et al. ARIA-EAACI statement on asthma and COVID-19 (June 2, 2020). Allergy 2021;76(3):689–697. DOI: 10.1111/all.14471.
Kozin ED, Remenschneider AK, Blevins NH, Jan TA, Quesnel AM, Chari DA, et al. American Neurotology Society, American Otological Society, and American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Foundation guide to enhance otologic and neurotologic care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Otol Neurotol 2020;41(9):1163. DOI: 10.1097/MAO.0000000000002868.
Hall A, Frauenfelder C, Butler C, Coyle P, Hopkins C. Paediatric olfactory dysfunction: a chance to detect COVID-19? Arch Dis Child 2021;106(3):e17. DOI: 10.1136/archdischild-2020-319971.
Maniaci A, Iannella G, Vicini C, Pavone P, Nunnari G, Falsaperla R, et al. A case of COVID-19 with late-onset rash and transient loss of taste and smell in a 15-year-old boy. Am J Case Rep 2020;21:e925813. DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.925813.
Al-Ani RM, Acharya D. Prevalence of anosmia and ageusia in patients with COVID-19 at a Primary Health Center, Doha, Qatar. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2020;1–7. DOI: 10.1007/s12070-020-02064-9.
Salepci E, Turk B, Ozcan SN, Bektas ME, Aybal A, Dokmetas I, et al. Symptomatology of COVID-19 from the otorhinolaryngology perspective: a survey of 223 SARS-CoV-2 RNA-positive patients. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2021;278(2):525–535. DOI: 10.1007/s00405-020-06284-1.
Spadera L, Viola P, Pisani D, Scarpa A, Malanga D, Sorrentino G, et al. Sudden olfactory loss as an early marker of COVID-19: a nationwide Italian survey. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2021;278(1):247–255. DOI: 10.1007/s00405-020-06252-9.
Saniasiaya J. Hearing loss in SARS-CoV-2: what do we know? Ear Nose Throat J 2021;100(2_suppl):152S–154S. DOI: 10.1177/0145561320946902.
Barillari MR, Bastiani L, Lechien JR, Mannelli G, Molteni G, Cantarella G, et al. A structural equation model to examine the clinical features of mild-to-moderate COVID-19: a multicenter Italian study. J Med Virol 2021;93(2):983–994. DOI: 10.1002/jmv.26354.
Giovanni A, Radulesco T, Bouchet G, Mattei A, Révis J, Bogdanski E, et al. Transmission of droplet-conveyed infectious agents such as SARS-CoV-2 by speech and vocal exercises during speech therapy: preliminary experiment concerning airflow velocity. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2021;278(5):1687–1692. DOI: 10.1007/s00405-020-06200-7.
Freni F, Meduri A, Gazia F, Nicastro V, Galletti C, Aragona P, et al. Symptomatology in head and neck district in coronavirus disease (COVID-19): A possible neuroinvasive action of SARS-CoV-2. Am J Otolaryngol 2020;41(5):102612. DOI: 10.1016/j.amjoto.2020.102612.
Patterson JM, Govender R, Roe J, Clunie G, Murphy J, Brady G, et al. COVID-19 and ENT SLT services, workforce and research in the UK: A discussion paper. Int J Lang Commun Disord 2020;55(5):806–817. DOI: 10.1111/1460-6984.12565.
Wang W, Xu Y, Gao R, Lu R, Han K, Wu G, et al. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in different types of clinical specimens. JAMA 2020;323(18): 1843–1844. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2020.3786.
Calvo-Henriquez C, Maldonado-Alvarado B, Chiesa-Estomba C, Rivero-Fernández I, Sanz-Rodriguez M, Villarreal IM, et al. Ethyl alcohol threshold test: a fast, reliable and affordable olfactory Assessment tool for COVID-19 patients. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2020;277(10):2783–2792. DOI: 10.1007/s00405-020-06131-3.
Wang D, Hu B, Hu C, Zhu F, Liu X, Zhang J, et al. Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus–infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA 2020;323(11):1061–1069. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2020.1585.
Zhang C, Shi L, Wang FS. Liver injury in covid-19: management and challenges. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020;5(5):428–430. DOI: 10.1016/S2468-1253(20)30057-1.
Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet 2020;395(10223):507–513. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30211-7.
Lippi G, Plebani M. Laboratory abnormalities in patients with Covid-2019 infection. Clin Chem Lab Med (CCLM) 2020;58(7):1131–1134. DOI: 10.1515/cclm-2020-0198.
Mullol J, Alobid I, Mariño-Sánchez F, Izquierdo-Domínguez A, Marin C, Klimek L, et al. The loss of smell and taste in the COVID-19 outbreak: a tale of many countries. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 2020;20(10):61. DOI: 10.1007/s11882-020-00961-1.
Storb R, Deeg HJ, Appelbaum FR, Schuening F, Sandmaier B, Raff RF, et al. Failure of anti-Ia monoclonal antibody to abrogate transfusion-induced sensitization and prevent marrow graft rejection in DLA-identical canine littermates. Transplantation 1988;45(2):505–506. DOI: 10.1097/00007890-198802000-00056.
Chen Z, Lv Y, Feng Y. Case report of acute airway obstruction caused by transglottic squamous carcinoma (stage IV) during the coronavirus pandemic cured by ECMO-assisted tracheostomy. Ear Nose Throat J 2021;100(2_suppl):113S–115S. DOI: 10.1177/014556 1320943354.
Morvan JB, Rivière D, Danguy des Déserts M, Bonfort G, Mathais Q, Pasquier P. Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy for saturating influx of COVID-19 patients: experience of military ENT physicians deployed in Mulhouse, France. Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis 2020;137(4):263–268. DOI: 10.1016/j.anorl.2020.06.016.
Khan MM, Parab SR, Paranjape M. Repurposing 0.5% povidone iodine solution in otorhinolaryngology practice in Covid 19 pandemic. Am J Otolaryngol 2020;41(5):102618. DOI: 10.1016/j.amjoto.2020.102618.
Frank S, Capriotti J, Brown SM, Tessema B. Povidone-iodine use in sinonasal and oral cavities: a review of safety in the COVID-19 era. Ear Nose Throat J 2020;99(9):586–593. DOI: 10.1177/01455613209 32318.
Karthikeyan P, Sivanand N, Vijayan N. Coronavirus disease-19 pandemic: how to flatten the curve? J Basic Clin Appl Health Sci 2020;3(2):90–92. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10082-02244.