Aim: The present review is done to analyze the serum vitamin D levels in different phenotypes of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Objectives: To estimate the serum levels of vitamin D in women with PCOS and without PCOS. To find out the distribution of different phenotypes of PCOS. To compare the serum vitamin D levels in different phenotypes of PCOS. Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome is the most common heterogeneous multisystem endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age. It is further divided into four phenotypes based on Rotterdam criteria. Vitamin D levels are known to be low among women with PCOS. Only limited literature is available related to vitamin D deficiency and the phenotypes of PCOS. This review has highlighted the phenotypes of PCOS and their correlation with vitamin D levels. Methods: An electronic search strategy was used to select the studies from different databases like PubMed, Google Scholar, SciELO, and ResearchGate. A combination of keywords like vitamin D, PCOS, and phenotypes of PCOS were used to select the studies. Inclusion criteria were studies in English, duration of search of 18 months, case–control studies and cross-sectional studies only. Results: Phenotype A was the most frequently found phenotype among the different phenotypes of PCOS. After analyzing the data, there was a positive association between vitamin D and PCOS. Obese women were more prone to have vitamin D deficiency. Women with vitamin D deficiency were found to have ovarian dysfunction and insulin resistance. But there was no strong consensus on the association between vitamin D and phenotypes of PCOS. Conclusion: We found a statistically significant difference in mean serum vitamin D levels among the women with PCOS and without PCOS. The most common phenotype was phenotype A and the least common was phenotype D. There was no significant difference in serum vitamin D levels in respect to different phenotypes of PCOS. Further studies with larger sample size in each phenotype are recommended to conclusively establish the variation of serum vitamin D level in PCOS, particularly related to phenotypes. Clinical significance: Vitamin D supplementation was found to be beneficial for women with PCOS.
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