The biliary tract is known for its intra- and extrahepatic variations. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is the best noninvasive modality to study its branching patterns. Apart from identifying pathologies, MRCP helps to identify the anatomical variations, which aids in preplanning in surgery. The aim of this article is to review the various anatomical variations in the biliary tract using MRCP. A literature search was conducted using the keywords “MRCP evaluation of biliary tract variations,” “uses of MRCP in preoperative mapping,” and “anatomy of biliary tract.” A total of 10 studies met our inclusion criteria and were included in this analysis. On the basis of results it can be concluded that MRCP serves as a good noninvasive method to analyze the biliary tract and hepatic artery variations.
Healey JE, Schroy PC. Anatomy of the biliary ducts within the human liver: analysis of the prevailing pattern of branchings and the major variations of the biliary ducts. AMA Arch Surg 1953;66(5):599–616. DOI: 10.1001/archsurg.1953.01260030616008.
Bismuth H, Corlette MB. Intrahepatic cholangioenteric anastomosis in carcinoma of the hilus of the liver. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1975;140(2): 170–178.
Castaing D. Surgical anatomy of the biliary tract. HPB (Oxford) 2008;10(2):72–76. DOI: 10.1080/13651820801992518.
Taourel P, Bret PM, Reinhold C, Barkun AN, Atri M. Anatomic variants of the biliary tree: diagnosis with MR cholangiopancreatography. Radiology 1996;199(2):521–527. DOI: 10.1148/radiology.199.2.8668805.
Soto JA, Yucel EK, Barish MA, Chuttani R, Ferrucci JT. MR Cholangiopancreatography after unsuccessful or incomplete ERCP. Radiology 1996;199(1):91–98. DOI: 10.1148/radiology.199.1.8633178.
Reuther G, Kiefer B, Tuchmann A. Cholangiography before biliary surgery: single-shot MR cholangiography versus intravenous cholangiography. Radiology [Internet]. DOI: 10.1148/radiology. 198.2.8596866.
Vanbeckevoort D, Van Hoe L, Ponette E, Marchal G, Bosmans H, De Clercq B, et al. Imaging of gallbladder and biliary tract before laparoscopic cholecystectomy: comparison of intravenous cholangiography and the combined use of HASTE and single-shot RARE MR imaging. J Belge Radiol 1997;80(1):6–8.
Limanond P, Raman SS, Ghobrial RM, Busuttil RW, Lu DSK. The utility of MRCP in preoperative mapping of biliary anatomy in adult-to-adult living related liver transplant donors. J Magn Reson Imaging JMRI 2004;19(2):209–215. DOI: 10.1002/jmri.10446.
Düşünceli E, Erden A, Erden I. [Anatomic variations of the bile ducts: MRCP findings]. Tanisal Ve Girisimsel Radyoloji Tibbi Goruntuleme Ve Girisimsel Radyoloji Dernegi Yayin Organi 2004;10(4):296–303.
Zhang J, Israel GM, Hecht EM, Krinsky GA, Babb JS, Lee VS. Isotropic 3D T2-weighted MR cholangiopancreatography with parallel imaging: feasibility study. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2006;187(6):1564–1570. DOI: 10.2214/AJR.05.1032.
Karakas HM, Celik T, Alicioglu B. Bile duct anatomy of the Anatolian Caucasian population: Huang classification revisited. Surg Radiol Anat 2008;30(7):539–545. DOI: 10.1007/s00276-008-0365-y.
Barsoum NR, Samie AA, Adel L, Asaad RE. Role of MRCP in assessment of biliary variants in living donor liver transplantation. Egypt J Radiol Nucl Med 2013;44(2):131–136. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejrnm.2013.02.013.
Sacher VY, Davis JS, Sleeman D, Casillas J. Role of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in diagnosing choledochal cysts: case series and review. World J Radiol 2013;5(8):304–312. DOI: 10.4329/wjr.v5.i8.304.
Frisch A, Walter TC, Hamm B, Denecke T. Efficacy of oral contrast agents for upper gastrointestinal signal suppression in MRCP: a systematic review of the literature. Acta Radiol Open. 2017;6(9): 2058460117727315. DOI: 10.1177/2058460117727315.
Gazelle GS, Lee MJ, Mueller PR. Cholangiographic segmental anatomy of the liver. Radiographics 1994;14(5):1005–1013. DOI: 10.1148/radiographics.14.5.7991810.
Choi JW, Kim TK, Kim KW, Kim AY, Kim PN, Ha HK, et al. Anatomic variation in intrahepatic bile ducts: an analysis of intraoperative cholangiograms in 300 consecutive donors for living donor liver transplantation. Korean J Radiol 2003;4(2):85–90. DOI: 10.3348/kjr.2003.4.2.85.