Burns are the most intensely painful injuries. All patients will experience pain, regardless of the cause, size, or depth of the burn. In spite of advances in topical wound care and pharmacological management and palliative care, wound care is the main source of the pain associated with burn injury. A deeper understanding of the many aspects of treating burns and their associated pain can help nurses to provide more effective analgesia. Nurses play a vital role in understanding the management of burn wound, prevention of infection and pain management
Thomas J. The Cocoanut Grove inferno. 50 years ago this week, 492 died in a tragedy for the ages. Boston Globe 1992 Nov 22
Cope, O., Laugohr, H., Moore, F.D., Webster, R. Expeditious care of full-thickness burn wounds by surgical excision and grafting. Annals of Surgery 125: 1- 22, 1947.
Sheridan R, et al. Management of background pain and anxiety in critically burned children requiring protracted mechanical ventilation. J Burn Care Rehabil 2001;22(2):150- 3
Choiniere M, et al. Patient-controlled analgesia: a doubleblind study in burn patients. Anaesthesia 1992;47(6):467-72.
Meyer WJ, 3rd, et al. Acetaminophen in the management of background pain in children post-burn. J Pain Symptom Manage 1997;13(1):50-5.
Long TD, et al. Morphine-infused silver sulfadiazine (MISS) cream for burn analgesia: a pilot study. J Burn Care Rehabil 2001;22(2):118-23.
Horch RE, Stark GB. Comparison of the effect of a collagen dressing and polyurethane dressing on healing of split thickness skin graft donor sites. Scand J Plast Reconst Surg Hand Surg. 1998;32:407-13.
Nataraj C, Ritter G, Dumas S, Helfer FD, Brunelle J, Sander TW. Extra cellular wound matrices: Novel stabilization and sterilization method for collagen-based biologic wound dressings. Wounds. 2007;19:148-56.
Gruss JS, Jirsch DW. Human amniotic membrane: A versatile wound dressing. Can Med Assoc J. 1978;118:1237- 46.
Hadjiiski 0, Anatassov N. Amniotic membranes for temporary burn coverage. Ann Burns Fire Disasters. 1996;9:88-92.
Linneman PK, et al. The efficacy and safety of fentanyl for the management of severe procedural pain in patients with burn injuries. J Burn Care Rehabil 2000;21(6):519-22.
Prakash S, et al. Patient-controlled analgesia with fentanyl for burn dressing changes. Anesth Analg 2004;99(2):552-5.
Sharar SR, et al. A comparison of oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate and oral oxycodone for pediatric outpatient wound care. J Burn Care Rehabil 2002;23(1):27-31.
Finn J, et al. A randomised crossover trial of patient controlled intranasal fentanyl and oral morphine for procedural wound care in adult patients with burns. Burns 2004;30(3):262-8.
Groeneveld A, Inkson T. Ketamine. A solution to procedural pain in burned children. Can Nurse 1992;88(8):28-31.
Humphries Y, et al. Superiority of oral ketamine as an analgesic and sedative for wound care procedures in the pediatric patient with burns. J Burn Care Rehabil 1997; 18(1 Pt 1):34-6.
Powers PS, et al. Safety and efficacy of debridement under anesthesia in patients with burns. J Burn Care Rehabil 1993;14(2 Pt 1):176-80.
Raymond I, et al. Sleep disturbances, pain and analgesia in adults hospitalized for burn injuries. Sleep Med 2004;5(6):551-9.
Raymond I, et al. Incorporation of pain in dreams of hospitalized burn victims. Sleep 2002;25(7):765-70.
Raymond I, et al. Quality of sleep and its daily relationship to pain intensity in hospitalized adult burn patients. Pain 2001;92(3):381-8.
Ashburn MA. Burn pain: the management of procedurerelated pain. J Burn Care Rehabil 1995;16(3 Pt 2):365-71.
Hoffman HG, et al. Use of virtual reality for adjunctive treatment of adult burn pain during physical therapy: a controlled study. Clin J Pain 2000;16(3):244-50.
Powers PS, et al. Interrupted debridement. J Burn Care Rehabil 1985;6(5):398-401
Elliott CH, Olson RA. The management of children's distress in response to painful medical treatment for burn injuries. Behav Res Ther 1983;21(6):675-83.
Kelley ML, et al. Decreasing burned children's pain behavior: impacting the trauma of hydrotherapy. J Appl Behav Anal 1984;17(2):147-58.
Nover RA. Pain and the burned child. J Am Acad Child Psychiatry 1973;12(3):499-505
Ptacek JT, et al. Pain, coping, and adjustment in patients with burns: preliminary findings from a prospective study. J Pain Symptom Manage 1995;10(6):446-55.
Perry S, Heidrich G. Management of pain during debridement: a survey of U.S. burn units. Pain 1982;13(3):267-80.
Wiechman SA, Patterson DR. ABC of burns. Psychosocial aspects of burn injuries. BMJ 2004;329(7462):391-3.
Saxe G, et al. Relationship between acute morphine and the course of PTSD in children with burns. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2001;40(8):915-21.
Trop M, et al. Silver-coated dressing Acticoat caused raised liver enzymes and argyria-like symptoms in burn patient. J Trauma 2006;60(3):648-52.
By Patricia A. Connor-Ballard, AJN t April 2009, Vol. 109, No. 4
Park SN, Lee HJ, Lee KH, Suh H. Biological characterization of EDC-crosslinked collagen-hyaluronic acid matrix in dermal tissue restoration. Biomaterials. 2003;24:1631-41.
Lazovic G, Colic M, Grubor M, Jovanovic M. The application of collagen sheet in open wound healing. Ann Burns Fire Disasters. 2005;18:151-6.
Veves A, Sheehan P, Pham HT. A randomized, controlled trial of promogran (a collagen/oxidized regenerated cellulose dressing) vs standard treatment in the management of diabetic foot ulcers. Arch Surg. 2002;137:822-7.
Nagata H, Ueki H, Moriguchi T. Fibronectin: Localization in normal human skin, granulation tissue, hypertrophic scar, mature scar, progressive systemic sclerotic skin, and other fibrosing dermatoses. Arch Dermatol. 1985;121:995-9.
Motta G, Ratto GB, De Barbieri A, Corte G, Zardi L, Sacco A, et al. Can heterologous collagen enhance the granulation tissue growth? An experimental study. Ital J Surg Sci. 1983;13:101-8.