Annals of SBV

Register      Login

VOLUME 4 , ISSUE 1 ( Jan-Jun, 2015 ) > List of Articles

Emerging and Re-Emerging Disease

R Elavarasi., M Aruna Devi, K Ruma Shanthini., S Guna.

Keywords : environment, infectious disease,emerging

Citation Information : Elavarasi. R, Devi MA, Shanthini. KR, Guna. S. Emerging and Re-Emerging Disease. 2015; 4 (1):59-66.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10085-4112

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 00-06-2015

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2015; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

The spectrum of infectious disease is changing rapidly in conjunction with dramatic societal and environmental changes. Worldwide, explosive population growth with expanding poverty and urban migration is occurring; international travel and commerce are increasing; and technology is rapidly changing, all of which affect the risk of exposure to infectious agents. Infectious diseases are emerging, re-emerging, and increasing in the United States, taking a toll in both morbidity and mortality. A major cause of the emergence of new diseases is environmental change (for example, human encroachment into wilderness areas and increased human traffic through previously isolated areas). The re-emergence of some diseases can be explained by evolution of the infectious agent (for example, mutations in bacterial genes that confer resistance to antibiotics used to treat the diseases). In partnership with representatives from health departments, other federal agencies, medical and public health professional associations, and international organizations has developed a strategic plan to address emerging infectious disease threats. The plan contains four goals that emphasize surveillance, applied research, prevention and control, and public health infrastructure. To ensure sustainability, plan implementation will be approached in stages, as a long-term endeavor with emphasis on extramural programs. As health-care reform proceeds priority should be given to strengthening partnerships between health-care providers, microbiologists, and public health professionals to detect and control emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases.


PDF Share
  1. Altizer, S., et al. (2013) Climate Change and Infectious Diseases: From Evidence to a Predictive Framework (abstract) http://www.sciencemag.org/content/341/6145/514.abstract
  2. Institute of Medicine. Emerging infections: microbial threats to health in the United States. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1992
  3. CDC. Adoption of hospital policies for prevention of perinatal group B streptococcal disease -- United States,
  4. MMWR 1998;47:665-70.
  5. Fauci AS. Infectious diseases: considerations for the 21st century. Clin Infect Dis 2001; 32: 675-85
  6. Claire V. Broome, Emerging Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA, Vol. 4, No. 3, July-September 1998;358-59.
  7. Bhatia R, Narain JP, Plianbangchang S. Emerging infectious diseases in East and South-East Asia. In: Detels R, Sullivan SG, Tan CC, editors. Public health in East and South-east Asia. Berkeley, USA: University of California Press; 2012. p. 43-78
  8. Morse, S.S. 1995. Factors in the emergence of infectious diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases [Serial online], 1(1). Available http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/index.htm. June 1999;
  9. WHO (1997), World Health Day Report 1997.
  10. WHO (1996), The World Health Report 1996.
  11. WHO (1999), Removing Obstacles to Healthy Development, WHO Report on Infectious diseases.
  12. Park K. Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine. 22ndt ed. Jabalpur: Bhanot; 2013.310-13.
  13. Morbidity and Mortality weekly report (MMWR), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) September 11, 1998/Vol. 47/No. RR-15.
  14. Kenrad E N, Carolyn M W, Neil M H, Graham. Infectious Disease Epidemiology. Maryland: AN Aspen; 2001. p 301-48. URL available from, http://www.ias.ac.in/jbioscii. (03.05.2013)
  15. Morse SS. Factors in the emergence of infectious diseases. Emerging Infect Dis 1995; 1 (1):7-15.
  16. Morse SS. Examining the origins of emerging viruses. In: Morse SS, editor. Emerging viruses. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993: 10-28.
  17. Felissa. LC, Elaine L, Emerging Infectious Disease: Nursing Reponses; 1996, Nursing Outlook, 44(4), pg.no. 164-168.
  18. 17. Pope AM, Snyder MA, Mood LH, editors. Nursing, health and the environment. Institute of Medicine, Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1995.
  19. Joseph D et.al, Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases; 2012, pg.no.3-5
  20. Centers for Disease Control. Addressing emerging infectious disease threats: a prevention strategy for the United States (executive summary). MMWR 1994:43;1-18. Report No.:RR-5.
  21. Dash AP, Bhatia R, Sunyoto T & Mourya DT, Emerging and Re-emerging arboviral Diseases in Southeast Asia; J Vector Borne Dis 50, June 2013, pp.77-84.
  22. World Health Organization. strengthening health security by implementing the international health regulations (2005) available at http://www.who.int/ihr/alert_and_response/en/
  23. Goel N, Gurpeet H & Swami H, How to deal with Emerging and Re-Emerging infectious diseases globally. The Internet Journal of Biological Anthropology. 2006. 1(1), pp.no.14-18.
  24. World Health Organization. Alert, response, and capacity building under the International Health Regulations (IHR), 2nd ed; 2008. available at: http://www.who.int/ihr/publications/9789241596664/en/
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.