Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are one of the most refractory brain tumors characterized by aggressive invasive growth and resistance to therapy. These tumors are highly heterogeneous at the molecular and histological levels. Specific hallmarks like necrosis and microvascular proliferation distinguish GBM from lower-grade gliomas. GBMs are one of the most hypoxic as well as angiogenic tumors. GBMs consist of specific niches within the tumor microenvironment that regulates metabolic needs, tumor survival and invasion, as well as cancer stem cell (CSC) maintenance. This review features the distinct GBM niches, the functional status of the vasculature, and discusses the prospects of therapeutically targeting GBM niche constituents.
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