Annals of SBV

Register      Login

VOLUME 5 , ISSUE 1 ( Jan-Jun, 2016 ) > List of Articles

Adipose tissue hypoxia in obesity

A. Akshayavardhani

Keywords : Hypoxia, Macrophage infiltration, Obesity,Adipose tissue

Citation Information : Akshayavardhani A. Adipose tissue hypoxia in obesity. 2016; 5 (1):74-76.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10085-5115

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 00-06-2016

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2016; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Obesity is linked to a variety of metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. The increased incidence of obesity has led to rise in interest in the biology of white adipose tissue (WAT). The tissue is no longer considered as a passive fat storage tissue but is a key endocrine and signaling organ secreting a multiplicity of protein factors called adipokines. In obesity, there is an enhanced secretion of a number of adipokines underpinning the role of inflammation in white adipose tissue towards the development of obesity and associated diseases. There is a substantial evidence, particularly from animal studies, that hypoxia develops in adipose tissue as the tissue mass expands in obesity, and the reduction in PO2 is considered to underlie the inflammatory response. The cells present within the WAT respond to hypoxia, by inhibiting the differentiation of pre-adipocytes to adipocytes and instead being transformed into leptin-secreting cells. The dynamic change found in the adipose tissue can be referred to as “adipose tissue remodeling,” in which stromal cells change dramatically in number and type during the course of obesity. Among stromal cells, infiltration of macrophages in the adipose tissue precedes the development of insulin resistance in animal models, suggesting that they are responsible for obesity-related adipose tissue inflammation. Understanding the molecular mechanism underlying adipose tissue remodeling may lead to the identification of novel, therapeutic strategies to prevent obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation.


PDF Share
  1. Hosogai N, Fukuhara A, Oshima K, Miyata Y, Tanaka S, et al. Adipose tissue hypoxia in obesity and its impact on adipocytokine dysregulation. Diabetes. 2007; 56:901-11.
  2. Brook CG, Lloyd JK, Wolf OH. Relation between age of onset of obesity and size and number of adipose cells. Br Med J. 1972; 2:25-7.
  3. Helmlinger G, Yuan F, Dellian M, Jain RK. Interstitial pH and pO2 gradients in solid tumors in vivo: high-resolution measurements reveal a lack of correlation. Nat Med. 1997; 3:177-82
  4. Trayhurn P. Hypoxia and adipocyte physiology: implications for adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity. Annu Rev Nutr. 2014; 34:207-36.
  5. Stern JS, Batchelor BR, Hollander N, Cohn CK, Hirsch J. Adipose cell size and immunoreactive insulin levels in obese and normal weight adults. Lancet. 1972; 2:948-51.
  6. Ye J. Emerging role of adipose tissue hypoxia in obesity and insulin resistance. Int J Obes (Lond). 2008; 33:54-66.
  7. Brahimi Horn MC, Pouysségur J. Oxygen, a source of life and stress. FEBS Lett. 2007; 581:3582-91.
  8. Rausch ME, Weisberg SP, Vardhana P, Tortorielllo DV. Obesity in C57BL/6J mice is characterised by adipose tissue hypoxia and cytotoxic T cell infiltration. Int J Obes (Lond). 2008; 32:451-63.
  9. O'Rourke R, White A, Metcalf M, Olivas A, Mitra P, et al. Hypoxia-induced inflammatory cytokine secretion in human adipose tissue stromovascular cells. Diabetologia. 2011; 54: 1480-90.
  10. Lewis JS, Lee JA, Underwood JC, Harris AL, Lewis CE. Macrophage responses to hypoxia: relevance to disease mechanisms. J Leukoc Biol. 1999; 66: 889-900.
  11. Kim SY, Choi YJ, Joung SM, Lee BH, Jung YS, et al. Hypoxic stress up-regulates the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 in macrophages via hypoxia-inducible factor. Immunology. 2010; 129:516-24.
  12. Yun Z, Maecker HL, Johnson RS, Giaccia AJ. Inhibition of PPAR-2 gene expression by the HIF-1-regulated gene DEC1/Stra13: a mechanism for regulation of adipogenesis by hypoxia. Dev Cell 2002; 2: 331-41.
  13. Hosogai N, Fukuhara A, Oshima K, Miyata Y, Tanaka S, et al. Adipose tissue hypoxia in obesity and its impact on adipocytokine dysregulation. Diabetes. 2007; 56: 901-11.
  14. Wang B, Wood IS, Trayhurn P. Hypoxia induces leptin gene expression and secretion in human preadipocytes: differential effects of hypoxia on adipokine expression by preadipocytes. J Endocrinol. 2008; 198: 127-34.
  15. Wu MH, Chen KF, Lin SC, Lgu CW, Tsai SJ. Aberrant expression of leptin in human endometriotic stromal cells is induced by elevated levels of hypoxia inducible factor- 1. Am J Pathol. 2007; 170: 590-8.
  16. Weisberg SP, Hunter D, Huber R, Lemieux J, Slaymaker S, et al. CCR2 modulates inflammatory and metabolic effects of high-fat feeding. J Clin Invest. 2006; 116:115-24.
  17. Ito A, Suganami T, Yamauchi A, Degawa-Yamauchi M, Tanaka, et al. Role of CC chemokine receptor 2 in bone marrow cells in the recruitment of macrophages into obese adipose tissue. J Biol Chem. 2008; 283, 35715-23.
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.