Introduction: Road Traffic Accidents (RTA) are the only public health problem for which society and decision makers still accept death and disability among young people on a large scale. The demographic, epidemiological and economic transition in India has changed the health scenario in a significant way during the last two decades.
Methods: An extensive search of all materials related to the topic was carried out in PubMed, Medline, World Health Organization website and Google Scholar search engines. Relevant documents, reports, research articles focusing on the distribution and determinants of Road Traffic accidents (RTA) published in the period 1994 2014 were included in the review. A total of 87 articles on Road traffic accidents were included in this study.
Results: The distribution and multiple determinants of RTA were identified, of which non usage of safety measures like helmets and seatbelts and influence of alcohol plays a vital role.
Conclusion: Based on this study it is evident that prevention and control of most of the modifiable factors can bring about a change in the statistics that would ensure our future to be safer.
Mohan D. Road traffic injuries: a neglected pandemic. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2003;81:684-5.
Gururaj G, Kolluri S, Chandramouli B, Subbakrishna D, Kraus J. Traumatic brain injury. National Medical Journal of India 2005;61:128-33.
Peden M, McGee K, Sharma G. The injury chart book: a graphical overview of the global burden of injuries. Geneva: World Health Organization 2002;5.
Farooqui JM, Chavan KD, Bangal RS, et al. Pattern of injury in fatal road traffic accidents in a rural area of western Maharashtra, India. The Australasian medical journal 2013;6:476.
Odelowo E. Pattern of trauma resulting from motorcycle accidents in Nigerians: a two-year prospective study. African journal of medicine and medical sciences 1994;23:109-12.
BEYAZTAÇ FY. the evaluation of the traffic accident cases applying to the emergence. Ulusal Travma Dergïsi 2002;8:29-33.
Last JM, Chin J, Fielding JE, Frank AL, Lashof JC, Wallace RB. Maxcy-Rosenau public health and preventive medicine: Appleton-century-crofts; 1998.
Andrade SMD, Jorge M. Road accidents in a city of southern Brazil. Revista de saude publica 2001;35:318-20.
Kahoro P. Experience with road traffic accident victims at the Nairobi Hospital. East African Medical Journal 2001;78:441-4.
Jirojwong S, Rudtanasudjatum K, Watcharavitoon P, Sathisathein W, Sangjun S. Non-fatal injuries sustained in road traffic accidents: a pilot study in provincial hospitals in Chon Buri, Thailand. Southeast Asian Journal Of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2002;33:193-200.
Wong E, Leong MK, Anantharaman V, Raman L, Wee KP, Chao TC. Road traffic accident mortality in Singapore. The Journal of emergency medicine 2002;22:139-46.
Larsson EM, Mártensson NL, Alexanderson KA. First-aid training and bystander actions at traffic crashes—a population study. Prehospital and disaster medicine 2002;17:134-41.
Health Situation in the South East Asian Region 1998-2000. New Delhi 2002.
Whitlock G, Norton R, Clark T, Pledger M, Jackson R, MacMahon S. Motor vehicle driver injury and socioeconomic status: a cohort study with prospective and retrospective driver injuries. Journal of epidemiology and community health 2003;57:512-6.
Koushki PA, Bustan MA, Kartam N. Impact of safety belt use on road accident injury and injury type in Kuwait. Accident Analysis & Prevention 2003;35:237- 41.
Zhou J-H, Zhao X, Wang Z, et al. The analysis of epidemiological characteristics of road traffic crashes in a mountain city in western China. Chinese journal of traumatology= Zhonghua chuang shang za zhi/Chinese Medical Association 2003;6:355-8.
Saidi H. Initial injury care in Nairobi, Kenya: a call for trauma care regionalisation. East African medical journal 2004;80:480-3.
Olukoga I. Pedestrian casualties and fatalities in road traffic crashes in a South African municipality. Traffic injury prevention 2003;4:355-7.
Kurzthaler I, Wambacher M, Golser K, et al. Alcohol and/or benzodiazepine use in injured road users. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental 2003;18:361-7.
Seleye-Fubara D, Ekere A. Pedestrian deaths resulting from road traffic accidents seen at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital--six-year review. Nigerian journal of medicine: journal of the National Association of Resident Doctors of Nigeria 2002;12:103-5.
Montazeri A. Road-traffic-related mortality in Iran: a descriptive study. Public health 2004;118:110-3.
Martin JL, Lafont S, Chiron M, Gadegbeku B, Laumon B. [Differences between males and females in traffic accident risk in France]. Revue d'epidemiologie et de sante publique 2004;52:357-67.
Jha N, Agrawal CS. Epidemiological study of road traffic accident cases. A study from Eastern Nepal. Regional Health Forum WHO South-East Asia Region;
Komba DD. Risk factors and road traffic accidents in Tanzania: A case study of Kibaha District. 2007.
Shrivastava K, Sinha M, Lala S. Fatal road accidents. An analysis of one hundred cases. Journal of Indian Academy of Forensic Sciences 1978;17:51-6.
Christopher JL M, Lopez AD. Alternative projections of mortality and disability by cause 1990-2020: Global Burden of Disease Study. The Lancet 1997;349:1498-504.
Nayak P, Udit B, Kumar N. An Autopsy study of thoraco-abdominal trauma in road traffic accident cases. Journal of Karnataka Association of Medico legal sciences 2001;10:18-22.
Gururaj G, Suryanarayana S. Burden and impact of injuries: Results of population-based survey. Proceedings of the 7th world conference on injury prevention and control, Vienna; 2004. p. 275-6.
Sharma B, Harish D, Sharma V, Vij K. Dynamics of road-traffic fatalities in Chandigarh-‘A surprise’. Journal of Forensic medicine and Toxicology 2002;19:25-30.
Mohan D. Road safety in less-motorized environments: future concerns. International journal of epidemiology 2002;31:527-32.
Mohan D. Social cost of road traffic crashes in India. Proceedings First Safe Community Conference on Cost of Injury Viborg, Denmark; 2002. p. 33-8.
Verma PK, Tiwari K. Epidemiology of Road Traffic injuries in Delhi: Result of a survey. Regional Health Forum; 2004. p. 6-14.
Parmod K, Tiwari K. Epidemiology of road traffic injuries in Delhi: Result of a survey. Regional health forum WHO South-East Region; 2004. p. 74-8b.
Gururaj G. The effect of alcohol on incidence, pattern, severity and outcome from traumatic brain injury. Journal of the Indian Medical Association 2004;102:157-60, 63.
Menabde N. Road map and challenges for universal coverage for prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases in India. Indian journal of community medicine: official publication of Indian Association of Preventive & Social Medicine 2011;36:S2.
Dandona R, Mishra A. Deaths due to road traffic crashed in Hyderabad city in India: need for strengthening surveillance. The National medical journal of India 2003;17:74-9.
Nakahara S, Chadbunchachai W, Ichikawa M, Tipsuntornsak N, Wakai S. Temporal distribution of motorcyclist injuries and risk of fatalities in relation to age, helmet use, and riding while intoxicated in Khon Kaen, Thailand. Accident Analysis & Prevention 2005;37:833-42.
Gururaj G. Road traffic deaths, injuries and disabilities in India: current scenario. National Medical Journal of India 2008;21:14.
Bela Shah GRM. Workshop on Development of a Feasibility Module for Road Traffic Injury Surveillance. New Delhi 2006
WHO. World Report on Road Traffic injury prevention. Geneva 2006.
Rastogi R. A study of accidents in and around Kota city. Indian highways 2006;34:5.
Ganveer GB, Tiwari RR. Injury pattern among non-fatal road traffic accident cases: A cross-sectional study in Central India. Indian journal of medical sciences 2005;59:9.
Accidental Deaths and Suicides in India. National Crime Records Bureau, Ministry of Home Affairs 2007.
Patil SS, Kakade R, Durgawale P, Kakade S. Pattern of road traffic injuries: A study from western Maharashtra. Indian journal of community medicine: official publication of Indian Association of Preventive & Social Medicine 2008;33:56.
Ruikar M. National statistics of road traffic accidents in India. Journal of Orthopedics, Traumatology and Rehabilitation 2013;6:1.
Road Traffic Accidents prevention in India. 2005.
Lal S, Adarsh P. Textbook of community medicine: CBS Publishers and Distributors Delhi; 2010.
Chunli C, Huichun W, Xiaohong S. The investigation and analysis of 1000 cases of traffic injury emergency treatment in five cities in China 1991. Proceedings of International Conference of Traffic Safety; 1991. p. 27-30.
Balogun J, Abereoje O. Pattern of road traffic accident cases in a Nigerian university teaching hospital between 1987 and 1990. The Journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 1992;95:23-9.
Jha N, Srinivasa D, Roy G, Jagdish S, Minocha R. Epidemiological study of road traffic accident cases: A study from South India. Indian J Community Med 2004;29:20-4.
Moshiro C, Heuch I, Åstrøm AN, Setel P, Hemed Y, Kvåle G. Injury morbidity in an urban and a rural area in Tanzania: an epidemiological survey. BMC public health 2005;5:11.
Ghimire A, Nagesh S, Jha N, Niraula S, Devkota S. An epidemiological study of injury among urban population. Kathmandu University medical journal 2009;7:402-7.
Aggarwal A, Kaur S, Dhillon MS. Sociodemographic Profile of Road Traffic Accident Victims Admitted at Emergency Surgical OPD of a Tertiary Care Hospital. J Postgrad Med Edu Res 2012;46:15-8p.
Khare N, Gupta SK, Varshney A, Athavale A. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENT CASES ATTENDING TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL, IN BHOPAL MADHYA PRADESH. National Journal of Community Medicine 2012;3.
Jha S, Yadav B, Karn A, Aggrawal A, Gautam A. Epidemiological study of fatal head injury in road traffic accident cases: a study from BPKIHS, Dharan. Health Renaissance 2010;8:97-101.
Mehta S. An epidemiological study of road traffic accident cases admitted in Safdarjang Hospital, New Delhi. indian Journal of Medical research 1968;56:456-66.
Joly M-F, Foggin PM, Pless IB. Geographical and socio-ecological variations of traffic accidents among children. Social science & medicine 1991;33:765-9.
World Development Report. New York 1993.
Government of India ministry of road transport and highways transport research wing. New Delhi 2012.
Clarke DD, Ward P, Bartle C, Truman W. Killer crashes: fatal road traffic accidents in the UK. Accident Analysis & Prevention 2010;42:764-70.
Road Traffic Injury Prevention in India 2004.
Ranganathan N, Gupta S, Raju M. Spatial and temporal characteristics of accidents in a metropolitan city 1991. Proceedings of the International Conference on Traffic Safety; 1991. p. 27-30.
Singh A, Bhardwaj A, Pathak R, Ahluwalia S. An epidemiological study of road traffic accident cases at a tertiary care hospital in rural Haryana. Indian Journal of Community Health 2012;23:53-5.
Ministry Of Road Transport & Highways 2011.
Parmod K, Tiwari K. Epidemiology of road traffic injuries in Delhi: Result of a survey. Regional health forum WHO South-East Region; 2004.
Ghosh P. Epidemiological study of the victims of vehicular accidents in Delhi. Journal of the Indian Medical Association 1992;90:309-12.
Dhingra N, Khan M, Zaheer M, Sinha S, Khan A, Dhingra M. Road traffic management-A national strategy 1991. Proceedings of the International Conference on Traffic Safety; 1991. p. 27-30.
Mishra B, Sinha ND, Sukhla S, Sinha A. Epidemiological study of road traffic accident cases from Western Nepal. Indian journal of community medicine: official publication of Indian Association of Preventive & Social Medicine 2010;35:115.
Gururaj G. Bangalore Injury surveillance collaborators group. Bangalore road safety and injury prevention program: Results and learning 2007;10.
JS M. A Compressive Textbook of Community Medicine. New Delhi: CBS Publishers & Distributors pvt Ltd; 2008.
Sharma D, Singh S, Mukherjee S. A study on road traffic accidents in Anand- Gujarat. Health Line 2011;2:12-5.
Thomas V, Lavanya S. Epidemiologic profile of road traffic accident (RCT) cases admitted in a tertiary care hospital-a retrospective study in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh. International Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences 2013;3:30-6.
Singh H, Dhattarwal S. Pattern and distribution of injuries in fatal road traffic accidents in Rohtak (Haryana). 2004:74-8.
Trinca GW, Johnston IR, Campbell BJ, et al. Reducing traffic injury-a global challenge 1988.
Varghese M, Mohan D. Transportation injuries in rural Haryana, North India. Proceedings of the International Conference on Traffic Safety; 2003: Macmillan India Ltd. New Delhi, India. p. 326-9.
Sethi D, Racioppi F, Bertollini R. Preventing the leading cause of death in young people in Europe. Journal of epidemiology and community health 2007;61:842-3.
Sahdev P, Lacqua MJ, Singh B, Dogra T. Road traffic fatalities in Delhi: causes, injury patterns, and incidence of preventable deaths. Accident Analysis & Prevention 1994;26:377-84.
Sood S. Survey of factors influencing injury among riders involved in motorized two-wheeler accidents in India: a prospective study of 302 cases. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 1988;28:530-4.
Suryakantha A. Text book of Community Medicine with Recent Advances. M/S Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers 2010:590.
Gururaj G, Reddi M, Aeron Thomas A. Epidemiology of road traffic injuries in Bangalore. Proceedings of the 5th world conference on injury prevention and control; 2000. p. 68-77.
Bharti P, Nagar A, Umesh T. Pattern of trauma in western Uttar Pradesh. Neurology India 1993;41:49-50.
Sathiyasekaran B. Accident trauma—A descriptive hospital study. The Journal of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health 1991;111:10-1.
World Health Organization. The global burden of disease: 2004 update. Geneva: WHO press; 2008. p: 1-24.
National Crime Records Bureau. Accidental deaths and suicides in India. New Delhi 2006.
Trivedi A, Rawal D. Prevalence of road traffic accidents and driving practices among young drivers. Age 2011;61:31-9.
Bener A, Burgut HR, Sidahmed H, AlBuz R, Sanya R, Khan WA. Road traffic injuries and risk factors. Californian Journal of Health Promotion 2009;7:92- 101.
Hassen A, Godesso A, Abebe L, Girma E. Risky driving behaviors for road traffic accident among driversin Mekele city, Northern Ethiopia. BMC Research Notes 2011;4:535.