Introduction: Household air pollution (HAP) is one of the major causes of morbidity and premature mortality in the developing world. India reported roughly 780, 000 premature deaths in 2016 from exposure to household air pollution (HAP) making it a leading cause of ill-health in India. Women are more vulnerable to health hazards from household air pollution exposure not only because they perform the household tasks for provision of energy, viz. gathering and processing fuel, cooking meals but also due to sheer time spent in the kitchen. Hence, this review was conducted with an objective to explore the impact of household air pollution on women\'s health and to recommend public health interventions and strategies to reduce the impact of HAP on health.
Methods: An exhaustive search for all materials related to the topic was made in different search engines, including Pubmed, Google scholar, World Health Organization website and Government websites for a duration of 15 days. Relevant policy documents, systematic reviews and meta-analysis, case control studies, cohort studies, cross-sectional surveys, technical publication series and research articles, published in the period from 1995-2019 were included. Overall, 49 articles were selected based upon the suitability of the current review objectives and analyzed.
Results: Various respiratory as well as non-respiratory illnesses were found to be attributed to household air pollution among women.
Conclusion: As HAP can be prevented by use of cleaner fuels, effective interventions, in the form of advocacy, behavior change communication and technological interventions along with a strong political can tackle this menace in the long run.
World Health Organization. Household air pollution: Health impacts; 2018. Available from https://www.who.int/airpollution/household/health-impacts/en/[Last accessed on 2019 May 20].
Bond TC, Doherty SJ, Fahey DW, Forster PM, Berntsen T, De Angelo BJ, et al. Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: a scientific assessment. J Geophys Res. 2013;118(11):5380-552.
Kar A, Rehman IH, Burney J, Puppala SP, Suresh R, Singh L, et al. Real-time assessment of black carbon pollution in Indian households due to traditional and improved biomass cookstoves. Environ Sci Technol. 2012;46(5):2993- 3000.
Health Effects Institute. Health Effects Institute State of Global Air 2018. Special Report MA, Boston. Available from: https://www.stateofglobalair.org/sites/default/files/soga-2018-report.pdf [Last accessed on 2019 May 22].
Census of India. House listing and Housing Census Data Highlights - 2011. Available from: http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011census/hlo/hlo_highlights. html [Last accessed on 2019 May 16].
Zhang J, Smith KR Indoor air pollution: A global health concern. Br Med Bull. 2003; 68:209-25.
World Health Organization. Household air pollution: Health impacts; 2006. Available from: http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0007/78613/AIQIAQ_mtgrep_Bonn_Oct06.pdf [Last accessed on 2019 May 16].
Clark ML, Peel JL, Balakrishnan K, Breysse PN, Chillrud SN, Naeher LP, et al. Health and household air pollution from solid fuel use: the need for improved exposure assessment. Environ Health Perspect. 2013;121:1120-1128.
Bruce N, Perez-Padilla R, Albalak R. Indoor air pollution in developing countries: A major environmental and public health challenge. Bull World Health Organ. 2000;78:1078-92.
Ezzati M. Indoor air pollution and health in developing countries. Lancet 2005;366(9480):104-6.
Orozco-Levi M, Garcia-Aymerich J, Villar J, Ramírez-Sarmiento A, Antó JM, Gea J.. Wood smoke exposure and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Eur Respir J. 2006;27:542-546.
Ezzatti M, Lopez AD, Rodgers A, Murray, CJL. Comparative quantification of health risks: global and regional burden of disease attributable to selected major risk factors; 2004. Available from: http://www.who.int/iris/handle/10665/42770 [Last accessed on 2019 May 16].
Ekici A, Ekici M, Kurtipek E, Akin A, Arslan M, Kara T, et al. Obstructive airway diseases in women exposed to biomass smoke. Environ Res. 2005;99:93-8.
Ramírez-Venegas A, Sansores RH, Pérez-Padilla R, Regalado J, Velázquez A, Sánchez C. Survival of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease due to biomass smoke and tobacco. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006;173:393-7.
Regalado J, Perez-Padilla R, Sansores R, Paramo Ramirez JI, Brauer M, Pare P, et al. The effect of biomass burning on respiratory symptoms and lung function in rural Mexican women. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006;174:901-5.
Gold JA, Jagirdar J, Hay JG, Addrizzo-Harris DJ, Naidich DP, Rom WN. Hut lung. A domestically acquired particulate lung disease. Medicine (Baltimore). 2000;79: 310-7.
Patra J, Bhatia M, Suraweera W. Exposure to second-hand smoke and the risk of tuberculosis in children and adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 18 observational studies. PLoS Med. 2015;12(6):e1001835.
Kolappan, R Subraman. Association between biomass fuel and pulmonary tuberculosis: a nested case-control study. Thorax. 2009;64:705-8.
Behera D and Aggarwal G. Domestic cooking fuel exposure and tuberculosis in Indian Women. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci. 2010;52:139-43.
Gninafon M, Ade G, Aït-Khaled N, Enarson DA, Chiang CY. Exposure to combustion of solid fuel and tuberculosis: a matched case-control study. Eur Respir J. 2011;38(1):132-8.
Behera D, Balamugesh T. Indoor air pollution as a risk factor for lung cancer in women. J Assoc Physicians India. 2005;53:190-2.
Zhao Y, Wang S, Aunan K, Seip HM, Hao J. Air pollution and lung cancer risks in China - A meta-analysis. Sci. Total Environ. 2006;366:500-13.
Hernandez-Garduno E, Brauer M, Perez-Neria J, Vedal S. Wood smoke exposure and lung adenocarcinoma in non-smoking Mexican women. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2004;8:377-83.
Brook RD, Franklin B, Cascio W, Hong Y, Howard G, Lipsett M, et al. Air pollution and cardiovascular disease: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Expert Panel on Population and Prevention Science of the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2004;109:2655-71.
McCracken JP, Smith KR, Diaz A, Mittleman MA, Schwartz J. Chimney stove intervention to reduce long-term wood smoke exposure lowers blood pressure among Guatemalan women. Environ. Health Perspect. 2007;115:996-1001.
McCracken JP, Smith KR, Stone P, Díaz A, Arana B, Schwartz J. Intervention to lower household wood smoke exposure in Guatemala reduces ST-segment depression on electrocardiograms. Environ Health Perspect. 2011;119:1562- 8.
Mitter SS, Vedanthan R, Islami F, Pourshams A, Khademi H, Kamangar F, et al. Household fuel use and cardiovascular disease mortality: Golestan Cohort Study. Circulation. 2016;133(24):2360-9.
Saha A, Kulkarni PK, Shah A, Patel M, Saiyed HN. Ocular morbidity and fuel use: an experience from India. Occup Environ Med. 2005;62:66-9.
Pokhrel AK, Smith KR, Khalakdina A, Deuja A, Bates MN. Case-control study of indoor cooking smoke exposure and cataract in Nepal and India. Int J Epidemiol. 2005;34:702-8.
Wolle MA, Munoz B, Mkocha H, West SK. Age, sex, and cohort effects in a longitudinal study of trachomatous scarring. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:592-6.
Swart D. Busting Household Energy Myths in SA: Using Research to Inform Action. 2012. Available from: https://www.who.int/airpollution/guidelines/household-fuel-combustion/Review_10.pdf [Last accessed on 2019 May 16].
Kimemia D, Vermaak C, Pachauri S, Rhodes B. Burns, scalds and poisonings from household energy use in South Africa: Are the energy poor at greater risk? Energ Sustainable Dev. 2014;18:1-8.
Tielsch JM, Katz J, Thulasiraj RD, Coles CL, Sheeladevi S, Yanik EL, et al. Exposure to indoor biomass fuel and tobacco smoke and risk of adverse reproductive outcomes, mortality, respiratory morbidity and growth among newborn infants in south India. Int J Epidemiol. 2009;38:1351-63.
Smith KR. Indoor air pollution in developing countries: recommendations for research. Indoor Air. 2002;12(3):198-207.
Leonardi-Bee J, Smyth A, Britton J, Coleman T. Environmental tobacco smoke and fetal health: systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2008;93(6):F351-61.
Glinianaia SV, Rankin J, Bell R, Pless-Mulloli T, Howel D. Particulate air pollution and fetal health: a systematic review of the epidemiologic evidence. Epidemiology. 2004;15(1):36-45.
Tielsch JM, Katz J, Thulasiraj RD, Coles CL, Sheeladevi S, Yanik EL, et al. Exposure to indoor biomass fuel and tobacco smoke and risk of adverse reproductive outcomes, mortality, respiratory morbidity and growth among newborn infants in South India. Int J Epidemiol. 2009;38(5):1351-63.
Mishra V, Retherford RD, Smith KR. Cooking smoke and tobacco smoke as risk factors for stillbirth. Int J Environ Health Res. 2005;15(6):397-410
Sreeramareddy CT, Shidhaye RR, Sathiakumar N. Association between biomass fuel use and maternal report of child size at birth - an analysis of 2005-06 India Demographic Health Survey data. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:403.
Lakshmi PV, Virdi NK, Sharma A, Tripathy JP, Smith KR, Bates MN, et al. Household air pollution and stillbirths in India: analysis of the DLHS-II National Survey. Environ Res. 2013;121:17-22.
Sapkota A, Gajalakshmi V, Jetly DH, Roychowdhury S, Dikshit RP, Brennan P, et al. Indoor air pollution from solid fuels and risk of hypopharyngeal/laryngeal and lung cancers: A multicentric case control study from India. Int J Epidemiol. 2008;37:321-8.
Lan Q, Chapman RS, Schreinemachers DM, Tian L, He X. Household stove improvement and risk of lung cancer in Xuanwei, China. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002;5:94(11):826-35.
National Biomass Cookstoves Programme (NBCP) Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. Available from: http://mnre.gov.in/schemes/decentralizedsystems/national-biomass-cookstovesinitiative/[Last accessed on 2019 May 22].
Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas. Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana. Government of India. 2016. Available from: http://www.pmujjwalayojana. com/[Last accessed on 2019 May 24].
Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas. Government of India 2016. Available from: http://www.givitup.in/about.html [Last accessed on 2019 May 22].
Husar J, Kitt F. Fossil Fuel Subsidy Reform in Mexico and Indonesia;
Available from: https://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/PartnerCountrySeriesFossil_Fuel_Subsidy_Reform_Mexico_Indonesia_2016_WEB.pdf [Last accessed on 2019 May 24].
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Using Pay-As-You- Go Solar Home Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa; 2017. Available from: https://unfccc.int/news/using-pay-as-you-go-solar-home-systems-in-sub-saharanafrica [Last accessed on 2019 May 24].
Pega F, Shaw C, Rasanathan K, Yablonski J, Kawachi I & Hales S. Climate change, cash transfers and health. Bull World Health Org. 2015;93:559-65.
Levine, Cotterman DI, Carolyn. What impedes efficient adoption of products? Evidence from randomized variation in sales offers for improved cookstoves in Uganda; 2012. Available from: https://escholarship.org/uc/item/7qk8m53w [Last accessed on 2019 May 23].