Annals of SBV

Register      Login

VOLUME 5 , ISSUE 1 ( Jan-Jun, 2016 ) > List of Articles

Bringing pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine into clinical practice

C. Adithan

Keywords : Pharmacogenomics, Personalized medicine, Genetic testing, Drug toxicity

Citation Information : Adithan C. Bringing pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine into clinical practice. 2016; 5 (1):9-13.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10085-5103

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-12-2019

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2016; The Author(s).


Pharmacogenomics and personalised medicine are emerging as important tools in individualised drug therapy. Many of the genes which encode drug metabolising enzymes, transporters and receptors are polymorphic. Individuals with polymorphic genes are likely to experience therapeutic failure or drug toxicity. This is clinically important for drugs with low safety margin such as oral anticoagulants, anti-epileptics and anticancer drugs. Prior genetic testing may help to predict responders and non-responders to the above mentioned drugs, besides avoiding drug toxicity. CIDRF is planning to introduce CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 genetic testing shortly, which shall help to integrate pharmacogenomics with clinical practice.

PDF Share
  1. Lazarou J, Pomeranz BH, Corey PN. Incidence of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized patients: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. JAMA. 1998; 279:1200-5.
  2. Stoneking M. Single nucleotide polymorphisms. From the evolutionary past. Nature. 2001;409:821-2.
  3. Kalow W, Tang BK, Endrenyi L. Hypothesis: comparisons of inter- and intra-individual variations can substitute for twin studies in drug research. Pharmacogenetics. 1998;8:283-9.
  4. on 15 May 2016).
  5. Jancova P, Anzenbacher P, Anzenbacherova E. Phase II drug metabolizing enzymes. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2010;154:103-16.
  6. Umamaheswaran G, Kumar DK, Adithan C. Distribution of genetic polymorphisms of genes encoding drug metabolizing enzymes & drug transporters - a review with Indian perspective. Indian J Med Res. 2014;139:27-65.
  7. Yee SW, Chen L, Giacomini KM. Pharmacogenomics of membrane transporters: past, present and future. Pharmacogenomics. 2010; 11:475-9.
  8. Johnson JA, Lima JJ. Drug receptor/effector polymorphisms and pharmacogenetics: current status and challenges. Pharmacogenetics. 2003;13:525-34.
  9. Martinez FD, Graves PE, Baldini M, Solomon S, Erickson R. Association between genetic polymorphisms of the beta2-adrenoceptor and response to albuterol in children with and without a history of wheezing. J Clin Invest. 1997;100:3184-8.
  10. Levin MC, Marullo S, Muntaner O, Andersson B, Magnusson Y. The myocardium-protective Gly-49 variant of the beta 1-adrenergic receptor exhibits constitutive activity and increased desensitization and down-regulation. J Biol Chem. 2002; 277:30429-35.
  11. Kesavan R, Narayan SK, Adithan C. Influence of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms on phenytoin-induced neurological toxicity in Indian epileptic patients. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2010;66:689-96.
  12. Krishna Kumar D, Shewade DG, Loriot MA, Beaune P, Balachander J, et al. Effect of CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2 and GGCX genetic variants on warfarin maintenance dose and explicating a new pharmacogenetic algorithm in South Indian population. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2014; 70:47-56.
  13. Subraja K, Dkhar SA, Priyadharsini R, Ravindra BK, Shewade DG, et al. Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C19 influences the response to clopidogrel in ischemic heart disease patients in the South Indian Tamilian population. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2013;69:415-22.
  14. Vilvanathan S, Gurusamy U, Mukta V, Das AK, Chandrasekaran A. Allele and genotype frequency of a genetic variant in ataxia telangiectasia mutated gene affecting glycemic response to metformin in South Indian population. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2014; 18:850-4.
  15. Surendiran A, Pradhan SC, Agrawal A, Subrahmanyam DK, Rajan S, et al. Influence of CYP2C9 gene polymorphisms on response to glibenclamide in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2011;67:797-801.
  16. Jung JA, Lim HS. Association between CYP2D6 genotypes and the clinical outcomes of adjuvant tamoxifen for breast cancer: a meta-analysis. Pharmacogenomics. 2014; 15:49-60.
  17. Zhang JP, Malhotra AK. Pharmacogenetics and antipsychotics: therapeutic efficacy and side effects prediction. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2011; 7:9-37.
  18. Aw W, Lezhava A, Andoh A, Tanaka H, Hayashizaki Y, et al. The Smart Amp method: rapid detection of SNPs in thiopurine S-methyltransferase and ABC transporters ABCC4 and ABCG2. Curr Drug Metab. 2012; 13:968-77.
  19. Wang B, Canestaro WJ, Choudhry NK. Clinical evidence supporting pharmacogenomic biomarker testing provided in US Food and Drug Administration drug labels. JAMA Intern Med. 2014;174:1938-44.
  20. Kitzmiller JP, Groen DK, Phelps MA, Sadee W. Pharmacogenomic testing: relevance in medical practice: why drugs work in some patients but not in others. Cleve Clin J Med. 2011;78: 243-57.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.