Dental implants have a broad array of applications, from single tooth replacement to complete oral rehabilitation with a prosthesis. Microorganisms colonize the implant's surface when it is exposed to the oral cavity. A successful implant treatment, however, is dependent on the absence of inflammation in the peri-implant tissues. The relationship of implant surface characteristics to the microbiota plays a major role in the success of an implant. The initial adherence of bacteria to intraoral surfaces is determined by the surface's physiochemical properties, such as the surface free energy (SFE) of the bacteria, the solid phase, and the surrounding liquid, as well as the surface integrity and composition of the solid medium. The surface characteristics at the micro or nanometer level, hydrophilicity, and biochemical bonding are responsible for implant success. The surface can be modified by either addition or subtraction procedures like acid etching, sandblasting, plasma spraying, hydroxyapatite coating, etc. By modifying the characteristics of the surface, biocompatibility can be improved, faster osseointegration can be provoked. The roughed surface has good osseointegration due to clot stability whereas, on the contrary, they are more prone to biofilm formation. Biofilm has been associated with almost all periodontal diseases, therefore knowledge of microbes around the implant is necessary for diagnosis and treatment. This review focuses on the influence of implant surface characteristics such as surface roughness, surface free energy, and surface composition on oral microbiota.
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