Annals of SBV

Register      Login

VOLUME 11 , ISSUE 2 ( July-December, 2022 ) > List of Articles

REVIEW ARTICLE

A Dynamic Disease Model Portraying the Challenges and Management of COVID-19 in Puducherry, India: A Narrative Review

Daisy S Precilla, Shreyas S Kuduvallli, B Agiesh Kumar, SR Rao, TS Anitha

Keywords : Coronavirus-2019, Epidemiology, Vaccination

Citation Information : Precilla DS, Kuduvallli SS, Kumar BA, Rao S, Anitha T. A Dynamic Disease Model Portraying the Challenges and Management of COVID-19 in Puducherry, India: A Narrative Review. 2022; 11 (2):45-54.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10085-9120

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 31-12-2022

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2022; The Author(s).


Abstract

Aim: To compile the epidemiological aspect of the coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Puducherry, India, focusing on the infectivity, reasons for the increasing trend of COVID-19 cases, the measures undertaken by the governments to mitigate this disease, and the experiences of people of Puducherry. Background: The COVID-19, a respiratory illness initially originated in Wuhan on December 2019, had exponentially spread across the globe since then. Nearly, 210 countries have been affected by this outbreak as of December 31, 2021. While the US, China, and Italy had high rates of infection initially, the disease gradually began threatening India as well, with the first case of this pandemic reported on 30 January 2020 in Kerala, India. As on 31 December 2021, 3.48 million affected cases have been reported in India, while in the Union Territory (UT) of Puducherry, India, 1.29 lakh affected cases have been reported. To date, the epidemiological aspect and the governance of this pandemic have not been documented. Review results: Lessons learned in dealing with the pandemic, such as partial or full lockdowns, containment zone approach for focused management, problems in governance and geopolitical influences, immense vaccine drive, and zero COVID-19 campaign were important to promote rapid response to curb virus transmission. Conclusion: Equally, the elucidation of pandemic preparedness and response in this article at the interface between the Government and the public points out to combat the increasing cases in the UT of Puducherry, India, in the second wave, understanding the current situation and tasks of compliance by the public and individuals is necessary through voluntary responsibility too. Clinical significance: Documentation on pandemic management in Puducherry, India, is expected to provide a model to study disease dynamics, deployment of strategies for diagnostics, vaccination, and sensitization of the public, etc.


PDF Share
  1. Yi Y, Lagniton PNP, Ye S, Li E, Xu RH. COVID-19: What has been learned and to be learned about the novel coronavirus disease. Int J Biol Sci 2020;16(10):1753–1766. DOI: 10.7150/ijbs.45134.
  2. Bera B, Bhattacharjee S, Shit PK, Sengupta N, Saha S. Significant impacts of COVID-19 lockdown on urban air pollution in Kolkata (India) and amelioration of environmental health. Environ Dev Sustain 2020;23(5):6913–6940. DOI: 10.1007/s10668-020-00898-5.
  3. Zumla AI, Memish ZA. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: Epidemic potential or a storm in a teacup? Eur Respir J 2014;43(5): 1243–1248. DOI: 10.1183/09031936.00227213.
  4. Hung LS. The SARS epidemic in Hong Kong: What lessons have we learned? J R Soc Med 2003;96(8):374–378. DOI: 10.1258/jrsm.96.8.374.
  5. Hua J, Shaw R. Corona virus (COVID-19) “Infodemic” and emerging issues through a data lens: The case of China. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020;17(7):2309. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17072309.
  6. Wetsman N. WHO declares the outbreak of the new coronavirus is a pandemic: The Verge. Available at: https://www.theverge.com/2020/3/11/21156325/coronavirus-pandemic-who-declares-covid-19-outbreak-global-h1n1 2020. Accessed on: 11 September 2020.
  7. Sharma A, Tiwari S, Deb MK, Marty JL. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2): A global pandemic and treatment strategies. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2020;56(2):106054. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.106054.
  8. Coronavirus in India: Latest map and case count. Available at: https://www.covid19india.org. Accessed on: 11 September 2020.
  9. Ghosh A, Nundy S, Mallick TK. How India is dealing with COVID-19 pandemic. Sensors International 2020;1:100021. DOI: 10.1016/j.sintl. 2020.100021.
  10. The Hindu. Coronavirus – Janata curfew on March 22 between 7 am and 9 pm, says Modi. Available at: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/narendra-modi-speech-live-updates-coronavirus/article31108793.ece 2020. Accessed on: 11 September 2020.
  11. PIB Delhi. MHA directs all States/UTs to ensure strict compliance of lockdown measures to fight COVID-19 and not allow any social/religious gathering/procession. Available at: https://pib.gov.in/Pressreleaseshare.aspx?PRID=1612928. Accessed on: 11 September 2020.
  12. Tewari M. India's fight against health emergencies: In search of a legal architecture. ORF. Available at: https://www.orfonline.org/research/indias-fight-against-health-emergencies-in-search-of-a-legal-architecture-63884/. Accessed on: 11 September 2020.
  13. Aquino EML, Silveira IH, Pescarini JM, Aquino R, de Souza–Filho JA, Rocha AdS, et al. Social distancing measures to control the COVID-19 pandemic: Potential impacts and challenges in Brazil. Cien Saude Colet 2020;25(1):2423–2446. DOI: 10.1590/1413-81232020256. 1.10502020.
  14. Thacker T, Sharma N. COVID-19 in India: Cautious government involves private sector in treating patients. Available at: https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/industry/healthcare/biotech/healthcare/cautious-govt-involves-private-sector/articleshow/74681205.cms?from=mdr The Economic Times. 2020. Accessed on: 11 September 2020.
  15. Ghosh K, Sengupta N, Manna D, De SK. Inter-state transmission potential and vulnerability of COVID-19 in India. Prog Disaster Sci 2020;7:100114. DOI: 10.1016/j.pdisas.2020.100114.
  16. Census 2011 Puducherry. Puducherry population; Sex ratio in Puducherry; Literacy rate Pondicherry 2011–2020. Available at: https://www.census2011.co.in/census/state/puducherry.html 2020. Accessed on: 11 September 2020.
  17. The Hindu. First COVID-19 case detected in Mahe. Available at: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/kerala/first-covid-19-case-detected-in-mahe/article31093347.ece 2020. Accessed on: 11 September 2020.
  18. Health Department, Puducherry COVID-19 Puducherry. Available at: https://covid19dashboard.py.gov.in/2020. Accessed on: 11 September 2020.
  19. Wikipedia. Puducherry (Union Territory). Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Puducherry&oldid=977433327 2020. Accessed on: 11 September 2020.
  20. Ojha S. Puducherry reports first confirmed case of coronavirus. Available at: https://www.livemint.com/news/india/puducherry-reports-first-confirmed-case-of-coronavirus-11584442490704.html Mint. 2020. Accessed on: 11 September 2020.
  21. Outlook. With first COVID-19 case, Pondicherry goes in for shutdown. Available at: https://www.indiatvnews.com/news/india/first-coronavirus-case-pondicherry-shutdown-599020. Accessed on: 11 September 2020.
  22. The Hindu. COVID-19: Two more positive cases in Puducherry. Available at: https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/puducherry/covid-19-two-more-positive-cases-in-puducherry/article31224774.ece 2020. Accessed on: 11 September 2020.
  23. The Hindu. Six new COVID-19 cases in Puducherry. Available at: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/tamil-nadu/six-new-covid-19-cases-in-puducherry/article31654293.ece. Accessed on: 11 September 2020.
  24. The Hindu. Puducherry reports 42 new cases. Available at: https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/puducherry/puducherry-reports-42-new-cases/article31949084.ece 2020. Accessed on: 11 September 2020.
  25. News18. One in 20 people showed evidence of COVID-19 infection by end of July: Survey. Available at: https://www.news18.com/news/india/1-in-20-people-showed-evidence-of-covid-19-by-end-of-july-2849653.html. Accessed on: 11 September 2020.
  26. Nair RB. Puducherry COVID-19 testing rate one of the highest in the country, says Chief Minister. Available at: https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/puducherry/puducherry-covid-19-testing-rate-one-of-the-highest-in-the-country-says-chief-minister/article32410851.ece The Hindu. 2020. Accessed on: 11 September 2020.
  27. Ramakrishnan T, Varma MD. Coronavirus lockdown – Tamil Nadu sticks with e-passes; Puducherry abolishes system. Available at: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/tamil-nadu/coronavirus-lockdown-tamil-nadu-sticks-with-e-passes-puducherry-abolishes-system/article32424624.ece The Hindu. 2020. Accessed on: 11 September 2020.
  28. World Health Organization. Infection prevention and control of epidemic- and pandemic-prone acute respiratory infections in health care: WHO guidelines. Available at: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/112656/1/9789241507134_eng.pdf?ua=1 2020. Accessed on: 11 September 2020.
  29. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/corona virus/2019-ncov/hcp/therapeutic-options.html 2020. Accessed on: 11 September 2020.
  30. The Hindu. Puducherry disaster management authority to meet on Wednesday to discuss measures to combat COVID-19. Available at: https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/puducherry/puducherry-disaster-management-authority-to-meet-on-wednesday-to-discuss-measures-to-combat-covid-19/article32325913.ece 2020. Accessed on: 11 September 2020.
  31. The Hindu. Full lockdown in Puducherry on Tuesdays. Available at: https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/puducherry/full-lockdown-in-puducherryon-tuesdays/article32343302.ece 2020. Accessed on: 11 September 2020.
  32. Census 2011 India [Internet]. [cited 2022 Nov 23]. Available from: https://www.census2011.co.in/ Accessed on: 11 September 2020.
  33. India Slums Population Census Data 2011 [Internet]. [cited 2022 Sep 23]. Available from: https://www.census2011.co.in/slums.php. Accessed on: 11 September 2020.
  34. Deccan Herald. Door-to-door testing of COVID-19 samples launched in Pondicherry. Available at: https://www.deccanherald.com/national/south/door-to-door-testing-of-covid-19-samples-launched-in-pondicherry-883079.html 2020. Accessed on: 11 September 2020.
  35. Dominique B. Dearth of beds: COVID-19 patients are ‘kept in wheelchairs and on stretchers’ in Puducherry hospital –Puducherry News. Available at: https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/puducherry/dearth-of-beds-covid-19-patients-are-kept-in-wheelchairs-and-on-stretchers-in-puducherry-hospital/articleshow/77789699.cms The Times of India. 2020. Accessed on: 11 September 2020.
  36. Dutta D. Puducherry health minister cleans toilet in COVID ward of hospital after patients complain. Available at: https://www.newindianexpress.com/states/tamil-nadu/2020/aug/29/puducherry-health-minister-cleans-toilet-in-covid-ward-of-hospital-after-patients-complain-2189970.html The New Indian Express. 2020. Accessed on: 11 September 2020.
  37. Varma MD. Puducherry records second highest testing rate in country. Available at: https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/puducherry/puducherry-records-second-highest-testing-rate-in-country/article31410004.ece The Hindu. 2020. Accessed on: 11 September 2020.
  38. Dominique B. Puducherry private medical college hospital introduces homecare packages for COVID-19 patients – Puducherry News. Available at: https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/puducherry/puducherry-private-medical-college-hospital-introduces-homecare-packages-for-covid-19-patients/articleshow/77114042.cms Times of India. 2020. Accessed on: 11 September 2020.
  39. JPMorgan Chase Institute Research. The potential economic impacts of COVID-19 on families, small businesses, and communities Available at: https://institute.jpmorganchase.com/institute/research/household-income-spending/potential-economic-impacts-of- covid-19-on-families-small-businesses-communities. Accessed on: 11 September 2020.
  40. Borpuzari P, ET Online. Demonetisation, GST and liquidity crisis drove small businesses to the brink. Then came coronavirus. Available at: https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/small-biz/sme-sector/demonetisation-gst-liquidity-crisis-drove-small-businesses-to-the-brink-then-came-coronavirus/articleshow/74684570.cms?utm_source=contentofinterest&utm_medium=text&utm_campaign=cppst 2020. Accessed on: 11 September 2020.
  41. ETGovernment.com. Opinion: Impact of COVID-19 on the Indian economy Available at: https://government.economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/economy/opinion-impact-of-covid-19-on-the-indian-economy/75021731 2020. Accessed on: 11 September 2020.
  42. Srinivasan R, Sugumar VR. Spread of traditional medicines in India. J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med 2017;22(2):194–204. DOI: 10.1177/2156587215607673. Accessed on: 11 September 2020.
  43. NORTHEAST NOW. AYUSH and indigenous healing methods. Available at: https://nenow.in/north-east-news/meghalaya/ayush-and-indigenous-healing-methods.html 2020. Accessed on: 11 September 2020.
  44. The Hindu. Siddha research papers throw light on efficacy of ‘Kabasura kudineer’ in managing COVID-19 Available at: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/health/siddha-research-papers-throw-light-on-efficacy-of-kabasura-kudineer-in-managing-covid-19/article31868238.ece 2020. Accessed on: 11 September 2020.
  45. Nair RB. Interactive voice response system planned for COVID-19 patients isolated at home in Puducherry. Available at: https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/puducherry/interactive-voice-response-system-planned-for-covid-19-patients-isolated-at-home-in-puducherry/article32393656.ece The Hindu. 2020. Accessed on: 11 September 2020.
  46. The New Indian Express. Puducherry government to seek Rs.25 crore from Centre to combat COVID-19. Available at: https://www.newindianexpress.com/states/tamil-nadu/2020/aug/11/puducherry-government-to-seek-rs-25-crore-from-centre-to-combat-covid-19-2181985.html 2020. Accessed on: 11 September 2020.
  47. Venkatasubbaiah M, Dwarakanadha Reddy P, Satyanarayana SV. Literature-based review of the drugs used for the treatment of COVID-19. Curr Med Res Prac 2020;10(3):100–109. DOI: 10.1016/j.cmrp. 2020.05.013.
  48. The Hindu. ICMR issues guidance on rapid antibody test kits for COVID-19, lists manufacturers. Available at: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/icmr-issues-guidance-on-rapid-antibody-test-kits-for-covid-19-lists-manufacturers/article31578301.ece 2020.
  49. The Hindu. A welcome change: On ICMR's clearance on using convalescent plasma therapy. Available at: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/editorial/a-welcome-change-on-icmrs-clearance-on-using-convalescent-plasma-therapy/article31560919.ece 2020.
  50. BBC News. Sputnik V, Covishield, Covaxin: What we know about India's COVID-19 vaccines. Available at: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-55748124 2021.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.