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Volume 10, Number 2, July-December 2021

EDITORIAL

Shanmuganathan Padmavathi

Artificial Intelligence in Health Care

[Year:2021] [Month:July-December] [Volume:10] [Number:2] [Pages:1] [Pages No:23 - 23]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10085-9112  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

REVIEW ARTICLE

Roopika Jandial, Karthick Subramanian, Eswaran Subramaniam, Sivaprakash Balasundaram

Literacy and Attitudes of Healthcare Professionals Regarding Suicide: A Review

[Year:2021] [Month:July-December] [Volume:10] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:24 - 28]

Keywords: Attitude regarding suicide, Healthcare professionals, Suicide literacy

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10085-9103  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: Suicide is currently listed among the leading causes of death, accounts for approximately 1.4% of all mortalities, and remains one of the preventable causes of death and disability. Annually, more than 800,000 people die due to suicide along with a even more higher number of suicide attempts. Stigmatizing attitudes toward suicide still prevail, contributing to a chain of negative consequences for survivors and their families. Aims and objectives: This review explores the extent of suicide literacy and the factors influencing the suicide literacy among the HCPs, as well as attitudes of HCPs regarding suicidal behavior. In addition, the review also evaluates whether there is an association between HCP's suicide literacy and their attitudes toward suicidal behavior. Materials and methods: Literature search was done with keywords “literacy of suicide” and “attitudes toward suicide in healthcare professionals” from the year 1981 to 2020, and the search was conducted on the following platforms—PubMed Central, Google Scholar, and ProQuest. The research was conducted from 2018 to 2019. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, out of 80 articles, only 40 articles were selected, out of which majority were original articles, some were meta-analysis, and few were review articles. Results: Studies have shown different attitudes and suicide literacy in HCPs, some showed positive attitude, and some showed negative attitude regarding suicide. Some studies showed high suicide literacy, and few showed low suicide literacy in HCPs. Limitations: Family history and personal history of suicide were not studied. Career variables of HCPs were not studied. Interdepartmental differences were not studied. Conclusion: This review indicates that suicide is a global problem and shows that both suicide literacy and attitude of HCPs toward suicide affect the approach, care, and treatment of patients with suicide-related behavior. Also, within HCPs, there is variation in terms of suicide literacy and attitude toward suicide, which in turn is influenced by several sociodemographic variables and clinical exposure variables. It is also evident from the reviews that suicide is a preventable condition. The reviews clearly indicate a definite scarcity of data on literacy of suicide in our region, highlighting the need for further research in this area.

REVIEW ARTICLE

Dhastagir Sultan Sheriff

Second Wave of COVID-19 Infection: An Indian Perspective

[Year:2021] [Month:July-December] [Volume:10] [Number:2] [Pages:2] [Pages No:29 - 30]

Keywords: Awareness, COVID-19, Health-seeking behaviors

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10085-9104  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

The second wave of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) infection in India has taken by shock, and all the government machinery is left wanting. There was widespread reporting of a sudden surge in infections, which has led to a scarcity of health personnel as well as equipment including oxygen cylinders. Many journals including Lancet have published articles trying to focus on the inadequate measures taken by the Government of India. India is a country with a population of 1.2 billion people. However, it has alerted every sphere of human activity from individuals to the community to be aware of the virus and its impact on human lives. The present grim situation has made common man ask from where the virus originated and why it has taken so much time to find out the intermediate host for human transmission. It has also warned that reputed journals must take into serious consideration while publishing public statements that the virus is from a natural source without any concrete evidence to substantiate the statement. One of the authors of the statement has a conflict of interest. India is a resilient country that has shown in its fight to face the COVID-19. The government and other institutions need to be more prepared to face future waves of infection.

REVIEW ARTICLE

Padmanabhan Karthikeyan, Nikhil Sivanand, Neelima Vijayan, Muhammed Nabeel Latheef, Shashwat Datt Mehta, Swaathi Mukilan

Understanding the Role of Coronavirus for Otorhinolaryngologists Based on Current Scientific Evidence: A Literature Review

[Year:2021] [Month:July-December] [Volume:10] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:31 - 35]

Keywords: Coronavirus, COVID-19, Otorhinolaryngology

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10085-9105  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim and objective: The novel coronavirus pandemic has resulted in telemedicine becoming a commonplace for patient care. Being a novel disease, and there are still multiple opinions and differences in all the treatment protocols and investigations followed, due to the vast amount of literature available. A consolidated review of all the literature relating to each field is needed, so that it can be accessed and used easily by upcoming treating doctors and researchers for managing coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). A review of published literature was done to systemically analyze the symptoms, investigations, and treatment protocols. Study design: Systematic literature review. Materials and methods: One hundred randomized, clinical, and experimental trials were reviewed by us. These trials were conducted since the first instance of COVID-19 in December 2019. A systemic literature review was done of all the PubMed indexed journals published between January 2020 and August 2020 using keywords COVID-19, coronavirus, and otorhinolaryngology, with use of World Health Organization website for references of official manuals and protocols, published in the English language. Results: From 100 original articles screened, all were systematically categorized into clinical features, investigations, and treatment. All the clinical features were described as early and late-onset symptoms. Investigations and various methods for evaluation were described in detail. Also, specific investigations for each clinical symptom like loss of smell and taste were also described. Data was insufficient for meta-analysis. Conclusions: Preventive measures and early mitigation are essential in breaking the chain. The current review of the literature suggests the preventive measures in the community with the most efficacy include proper hand hygiene, such as washing hands frequently with soap and water or using an alcohol-based hand rub with 60% isopropyl alcohol or more, and to avoid touching the face. This may prevent the transmission of the pathogen to the respiratory tract and thereby prevent the spread of this fatal disease.

REVIEW ARTICLE

Nikhil Vasan Arulmany, Ganesh Babu

Feasibility and Application of Enhanced Recovery after Surgery (ERAS®) Protocol in Gastric Interventions: A Narrative Review

[Year:2021] [Month:July-December] [Volume:10] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:36 - 38]

Keywords: Enhanced recovery after surgery, Gastrectomies, Length of stay, Perioperative care

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10085-9107  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS®) is a paradigm shift based on evidence showing reduced regeneration times and complications after the operation. In a range of surgical disciplines, ERAS’ functions have been studied. In the field of gastric surgery, the ERAS protocol for gastrectomies was developed in 2014, with a subsequent meta-analysis demonstrating its efficacy. The use of ERAS in an emergency situation is feasible and effective; however, some improvements to the protocol may be needed. As a result, further research is necessary. There is also insufficient data to say whether ERAS improves patients’ long-term results. As most of the centers have been using the ERAS protocol for less than 5 years, more data are required.

REVIEW ARTICLE

Rani Ponnusamy, T Arun Thilak

Dural Puncture Epidural during Labor: A Perspective

[Year:2021] [Month:July-December] [Volume:10] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:39 - 41]

Keywords: Bupivacaine, Dural puncture epidural, Obstetric analgesia, Ropivacaine

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10085-9109  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Combined spinal epidural (CSE) and epidural (EPL) are the two commonly used neuraxial techniques for labor analgesia. CSE has faster onset but late recognition of epidural failure. EPL produces late onset of analgesia, and quality may not be reliable. Dural puncture epidural (DPE), a modification of the CSE, is a procedure in which the dura will be perforated using a spinal needle with no administration of intrathecal medication. This technique has a faster onset and improved block quality in terms of the caudal spread of analgesia that can be attributed due to the translocation of medication from epidural space into the dural sac. DPE is found to be more effective for labor analgesia with a low dose of local anesthetics with fewer maternal and fetal side effects than the other techniques.

REVIEW ARTICLE

Nagam Amarnath, S Vinoth Kumar, CP Ganesh Babu

Role of Ultrasound and Tru-Cut Biopsy in Breast Lumps: A Contemporary Review

[Year:2021] [Month:July-December] [Volume:10] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:42 - 46]

Keywords: Benign breast diseases, Breast cancer, Core needle biopsy, Histopathology, Tru-Cut biopsy, Ultrasound

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10085-9110  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: Ultrasonography (USG) is one of the most commonly used and important imaging modalities in assessing breast lumps. It helps majorly in differentiating cystic and solid lesions. Tru-Cut biopsy (TCB) is less invasive and can be done easily with minimal deformity and scarring. The two main objectives of percutaneous biopsy techniques are to achieve a high degree of accuracy and to give information about the tumor (type, grade, invasion, hormonal receptors, HER-2 NEU, etc.). This review article is an attempt to evaluate the superiority of one test over the other based on the available literature. Methods: Primary relevant publications obtained from PubMed and Google Scholar were included. Duplications of articles from various databases were eliminated. The articles were reviewed based on the role of ultrasound and TCB in the evaluation of breast lumps. Results: Both USG and TCB have similar diagnostic accuracy in the evaluation of breast lumps and superiority could not be established.

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