Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most prevalent metabolic complications in pregnancy associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, one of which is large for gestational age (LGA) baby. Large for gestational age fetuses have increased subcutaneous fat deposition in the abdomen. This can be measured by fetal abdominal subcutaneous tissue thickness (FASTT) using ultrasound. This review has highlighted the usefulness of FASTT as a predictor of LGA neonate in GDM.
Objectives: The present review is aimed to determine the usefulness of FASTT measurement as a predictor of large for gestational age neonate in gestational diabetes mellitus.
Materials and methods: An electronic search strategy was used to select the studies from different databases like PubMed, Google Scholar, SciELO, Research Gate. A combination of keywords like FASTT, GDM, birth weight (BW), and ultrasound was used to select the studies. Inclusion criteria were English language, duration of search 15 years, cohort, and observational studies only. However, systematic reviews and meta-analyses were excluded from the review. The total number of articles reviewed was 48 out of which only 12 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The selected articles were further assessed for the quality of the research and included in the review.
Conclusion: Fetal abdominal subcutaneous tissue thickness had a positive correlation with BW and can discriminate between small for gestational age (SGA), appropriate for gestational age (AGA), and LGA neonates. Fetal abdominal subcutaneous tissue thickness is a useful tool to predict LGA neonates in GDM.
Aim and objective: To review the correlation between the clinical profile and the coronary angiographic vessel burden in patients with acute coronary syndrome that has been documented in the literature.
Background: The clinical profile and the atherosclerotic vessel burden need to be reviewed, regarding the risk factor and the severity of the coronary artery pathology it carries. The recent trends in the occurrence of metabolic comorbidities, the age of presentation of the primary cardiac event with its correlation with complications have to be taken into consideration from literature published so far to step up the nodal coronary care.
Results: Studies are done across revealing a male predominance with respect to coronary care events. Diabetes mellitus and systemic hypertension are the most common risk factors.
Conclusion: Diabetes is the single most common risk factor in most studies, involved with a multi-vessel pathology. With diabetes occurrence creeping into the third decade, the incidence of acute coronary syndromes has also begun in the younger age groups.
Clinical significance: The recent trends are very important to predict and prevent cardiac event-related morbidity and mortality. This can also provide small-time hospitals information to aid the local community, as the cardiovascular cause is the leading cause of death in the world.
Chemical peeling is a process wherein one or more chemical agents are applied to the skin. It causes partial destruction of the epidermis or dermis with exfoliation or desquamation followed by resurfacing of the epidermis and remodeling of the collagen and elastic fibers. It is a type of controlled cosmetic chemical burn which is one of the treatments for acne and post-acne pigmentation. Post-acne hyperpigmentation (PAH) is very common in acne patients which can occur in all skin types, although it is more common in dark skin types which affects both men and women equally. Many studies have been conducted for post-acne pigmentation by combining chemical peeling with lasers or with topical medications. Only a few studies have reported the efficacy of chemical peeling alone in the treatment of post-acne pigmentation. Thus, this review focuses on the efficacy of glycolic and salicylic acid chemical peels used in the management of post-inflammatory pigmentation.
Today, diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are responsible for most hospitalizations compared to any other complication of diabetes. Foot ulceration is common and affects up to 25% of the diabetic population during their lifetime, resulting in the most common cause of hospitalizations (~30%). Plantar ulcers are the commonest neuropathic lesions in diabetes patients due to unrecognized trauma and chronic hyperglycemia are some of the known risk factors. In this review article, we assess the healing ability of DFUs if an offloading intervention was used.
Sleep is a dynamic process in the human body that plays an important influence on various functions. Recent researches are exploring the field of sleep to understand the development, the process of the sleep/wake cycle, in an attempt to understand sleep-related disorders. In addition to understanding the sciences behind sleep disorders, understanding how sleep is integral to development and functioning helps in optimizing sleep to its fullest to aid in better functional outcomes. This is of particular importance in children due to their inability to communicate the decline in their functioning capacity and attribute it to their disturbed sleep patterns like adults. Significant changes have been noted between various countries and hence the influence of various societal and cultural norms were identified. The impact of poor sleep on physical functioning, mental and psychosocial health is very well emphasized. Since children are more vulnerable to electronic devices and other habits that disrupt the good quality of sleep, it becomes the responsibility of the parents and pediatricians to understand the benefits of regular sleep habits and sleep hygiene.
The incidence of residual paralysis remains high in the postoperative period even after reversal of intermediate-acting neuromuscular blockers when reversal and extubation are done based on clinical features and are minimized with neuromuscular monitoring (NMM). Correlation between the clinical features of neuromuscular recovery and train-of-four ratio (TOFR) in NMM is variable. Complete neuromuscular recovery depends upon various factors such as age, the weight of the patient, and anesthesia-related factors such as depth of neuromuscular blockade, an inhalational agent used, the time interval between the last dose of neuromuscular block, and reversal administration. The incidence of residual paralysis was found to be high when the neuromuscular blockade was reversed with a standard dose of reversal and recent studies have demonstrated that low-dose neostigmine is adequate to reverse the shallow neuromuscular blocking effects. Hence, quantitative NMM should be used for safe practice while conducting general anesthesia.