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2022 | July-December | Volume 11 | Issue 2

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Subhash Chandra Parija, Padmavathi Shanmuganathan

Academic Flexibility of National Educational Policy: Academic Bank of Credits

[Year:2022] [Month:July-December] [Volume:11] [Number:2] [Pages:2] [Pages No:31 - 32]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10085-9122  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Karri Lakshmi Manasa, Mangaiyarkarasi Ravirajan

Are Phenotypes of PCOS and Vitamin D Levels Interlinked

[Year:2022] [Month:July-December] [Volume:11] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:33 - 35]

Keywords: Phenotypes of polycystic ovarian syndrome, Polycystic ovarian syndrome, Vitamin D

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10085-9101  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The present review is done to analyze the serum vitamin D levels in different phenotypes of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Objectives: To estimate the serum levels of vitamin D in women with PCOS and without PCOS. To find out the distribution of different phenotypes of PCOS. To compare the serum vitamin D levels in different phenotypes of PCOS. Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome is the most common heterogeneous multisystem endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age. It is further divided into four phenotypes based on Rotterdam criteria. Vitamin D levels are known to be low among women with PCOS. Only limited literature is available related to vitamin D deficiency and the phenotypes of PCOS. This review has highlighted the phenotypes of PCOS and their correlation with vitamin D levels. Methods: An electronic search strategy was used to select the studies from different databases like PubMed, Google Scholar, SciELO, and ResearchGate. A combination of keywords like vitamin D, PCOS, and phenotypes of PCOS were used to select the studies. Inclusion criteria were studies in English, duration of search of 18 months, case–control studies and cross-sectional studies only. Results: Phenotype A was the most frequently found phenotype among the different phenotypes of PCOS. After analyzing the data, there was a positive association between vitamin D and PCOS. Obese women were more prone to have vitamin D deficiency. Women with vitamin D deficiency were found to have ovarian dysfunction and insulin resistance. But there was no strong consensus on the association between vitamin D and phenotypes of PCOS. Conclusion: We found a statistically significant difference in mean serum vitamin D levels among the women with PCOS and without PCOS. The most common phenotype was phenotype A and the least common was phenotype D. There was no significant difference in serum vitamin D levels in respect to different phenotypes of PCOS. Further studies with larger sample size in each phenotype are recommended to conclusively establish the variation of serum vitamin D level in PCOS, particularly related to phenotypes. Clinical significance: Vitamin D supplementation was found to be beneficial for women with PCOS.



RS Jenish, T Lokesh Kumar, MVS Raju

Evaluation of Biliary Tract Variations Using Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography

[Year:2022] [Month:July-December] [Volume:11] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:36 - 38]

Keywords: Biliary tract variations, Cystic duct variations, Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10085-9106  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


The biliary tract is known for its intra- and extrahepatic variations. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is the best noninvasive modality to study its branching patterns. Apart from identifying pathologies, MRCP helps to identify the anatomical variations, which aids in preplanning in surgery. The aim of this article is to review the various anatomical variations in the biliary tract using MRCP. A literature search was conducted using the keywords “MRCP evaluation of biliary tract variations,” “uses of MRCP in preoperative mapping,” and “anatomy of biliary tract.” A total of 10 studies met our inclusion criteria and were included in this analysis. On the basis of results it can be concluded that MRCP serves as a good noninvasive method to analyze the biliary tract and hepatic artery variations.



A Muthulatha, Tamilselvan Bhanupriya, Shanmugam Srikanth

Onychomycosis as a Cause of Onychodystrophy: A Narrative Review

[Year:2022] [Month:July-December] [Volume:11] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:39 - 44]

Keywords: Nail, Nail dystrophy, Onychodystrophy

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10085-9111  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Onychodystrophy is defined as the disruption of the nail plate and can be caused by a number of infective and noninfective causes. Often, the treatment modalities and the prognostic outcomes differ according to the underlying etiology of nail dystrophy. Hence, an understanding of the anatomy of the nail unit and clinical presentations of various acquired causes of onychodystrophy is necessary to address the underlying cause and treat accordingly.



Daisy S Precilla, Shreyas S Kuduvallli, B Agiesh Kumar, SR Rao, TS Anitha

A Dynamic Disease Model Portraying the Challenges and Management of COVID-19 in Puducherry, India: A Narrative Review

[Year:2022] [Month:July-December] [Volume:11] [Number:2] [Pages:10] [Pages No:45 - 54]

Keywords: Coronavirus-2019, Epidemiology, Vaccination

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10085-9120  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To compile the epidemiological aspect of the coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Puducherry, India, focusing on the infectivity, reasons for the increasing trend of COVID-19 cases, the measures undertaken by the governments to mitigate this disease, and the experiences of people of Puducherry. Background: The COVID-19, a respiratory illness initially originated in Wuhan on December 2019, had exponentially spread across the globe since then. Nearly, 210 countries have been affected by this outbreak as of December 31, 2021. While the US, China, and Italy had high rates of infection initially, the disease gradually began threatening India as well, with the first case of this pandemic reported on 30 January 2020 in Kerala, India. As on 31 December 2021, 3.48 million affected cases have been reported in India, while in the Union Territory (UT) of Puducherry, India, 1.29 lakh affected cases have been reported. To date, the epidemiological aspect and the governance of this pandemic have not been documented. Review results: Lessons learned in dealing with the pandemic, such as partial or full lockdowns, containment zone approach for focused management, problems in governance and geopolitical influences, immense vaccine drive, and zero COVID-19 campaign were important to promote rapid response to curb virus transmission. Conclusion: Equally, the elucidation of pandemic preparedness and response in this article at the interface between the Government and the public points out to combat the increasing cases in the UT of Puducherry, India, in the second wave, understanding the current situation and tasks of compliance by the public and individuals is necessary through voluntary responsibility too. Clinical significance: Documentation on pandemic management in Puducherry, India, is expected to provide a model to study disease dynamics, deployment of strategies for diagnostics, vaccination, and sensitization of the public, etc.


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