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2023 | July-December | Volume 12 | Issue 2

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EDITORIAL

Richa Gupta, S Sowmya

Automated Assessments: Advantages, Challenges and Ethical Considerations

[Year:2023] [Month:July-December] [Volume:12] [Number:2] [Pages:2] [Pages No:27 - 28]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10085-9130  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

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REVIEW ARTICLE

Shruthi S Kumar

Utility of Dermoscopy in Vitiligo: An Overview

[Year:2023] [Month:July-December] [Volume:12] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:29 - 32]

Keywords: Dermoscopy, Vitiligo, Vitiligo stability

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10085-9108  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Vitiligo is associated with significant psychological burden and stigmatization, especially among dark complexion population. Dermoscopy is a noninvasive method that allows in vivo evaluation of pigmentation and microstructures of skin not visible to the naked eye. The identification of specific dermoscopic patterns might help in assessing the stability of vitiligo lesions, which is of vital importance in determining the modality of treatment. This review aims at providing a comprehensive overview of dermoscopy and its utility in vitiligo.

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REVIEW ARTICLE

Sandeep Reuben Manohar, Tirou Aroult

Ultrasound Morphology of Axillary Lymph Nodes as a Non-invasive Alternative to Detect Metastasis in Early Breast Cancer

[Year:2023] [Month:July-December] [Volume:12] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:33 - 37]

Keywords: Axillary lymph node, Axillary ultrasound, Sentinel lymph node biopsy

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10085-9128  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

The axillary lymph node status is the most important prognostic factor in early stage breast cancer. A sentinel lymph node biopsy determines whether axillary node dissection is necessary. The use of the operating room and the administration of radioisotopes are also costs associated with this operation. As a result, patients with nodal metastases that could lead to axillary dissection should be identified before surgery. Axillary ultrasound is widely being used to determine nodal status prior to surgery. It has been shown to be a receptive and accurate modality for detecting nodal metastases. When combined with fine-needle aspiration, this modality's precision is greatly improved. This article discusses preoperative axillary ultrasound (PAUS) in early and locally advanced breast cancer patients with and without fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Based on this analysis, we estimate the proportion of patients who would be able to escape a sentinel lymph node biopsy, as well as the cost benefit of axillary ultrasound.

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REVIEW ARTICLE

Poojitha Ronda, CS Prabhu, T Lokesh Kumar

Anatomical Variants and Anomalies of Coronary Artery Tree as Seen in Slice Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT)

[Year:2023] [Month:July-December] [Volume:12] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:38 - 42]

Keywords: Computed tomography, Coronary artery disease, Coronary computed tomography angiography

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10085-9129  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Abstract cardiovascular diseases, especially coronary heart disease (CHD), are an epidemic in India. So, early diagnosis of coronary artery disease is necessary. There is an emerging need for the assessment of anatomical variants and anomalies of the coronary artery tree for early diagnosis of coronary artery disease. With rapid advancement of non-invasive imaging like computed tomography coronary angiography, the complex anatomy of the coronary tree is assessed. The most common type of dominant system was the right coronary dominance. The most commonly encountered variant was ramus intermedius branch. In majority, most patients with anomalies are asymptomatic and anomalies were an incidental finding on coronary angiography. Anomalous origin and course of the coronary artery were the commonly encountered of which most are benign; however, few of these anomalies were associated with sudden cardiac death (interarterial course). Other anomalies associated with sudden cardiac death included anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery, atresia of the left main stem and coronary fistulae. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the various normal anatomy, variants, and anomalies with a brief about their clinical presentations.

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REVIEW ARTICLE

V Rathithya, S Vandana, Jagat Reddy

Dental Implant Imaging and Its Current Update: A Review

[Year:2023] [Month:July-December] [Volume:12] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:43 - 48]

Keywords: Advanced imaging, Dental implants, Implant software, Radiography

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10085-9121  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

People who have severe dental issues and were unable to keep their natural teeth have seen an improvement in their quality of life thanks to dental implants. They have gained a lot of traction since they can replace damaged tooth structures permanently and give restorative benefits for a modern lifestyle without affecting the patient's self-esteem or oral or speaking skills. Since the advent of newer imaging modalities, choosing a suitable implant imaging technique has become a difficult task, and several of these are employed for implant imaging. The imaging modality should provide dimensional accuracy in addition to accounting for the anatomy. Due to the need of placing implants in the exact planned position in both mandible and maxilla, radiography has grown to serve a major part in dental implantology diagnosis and treatment planning. Since there are so many imaging modalities available, treatment planning for implant placement can be difficult. Therefore, all associated benefits and drawbacks should be taken into account when choosing the type of imaging technique for pre and postoperative assessment of dental implants, which will be comprehensively reviewed in this study.

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REVIEW ARTICLE

Urvin Shah, T Tirou Aroul, Robinson Smile

Review of Treatment Modalities in Hemorrhoidal Disease

[Year:2023] [Month:July-December] [Volume:12] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:49 - 54]

Keywords: Hemorrhoids, Piles, Sclerotherapy

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10085-9131  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction: Hemorrhoid disease is one of the most common diseases of the anal region and constitutes majority of colorectal investigations. Symptoms related to hemorrhoids include bleeding during or after defecation, pain or discomfort, and perianal itch or irritation. Methodology: We have included various studies that evaluate the effectiveness of lifestyle modification, conservative pharmacological treatments, non-surgical procedures, and surgical procedure in the management of hemorrhoids from PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar. We have included articles published from 1990 to 2020. Conclusion: First-degree hemorrhoids can be managed with conservative and medical treatments. Second-degree and relatively small third-degree hemorrhoids can be treated with nonoperative modalities. Surgery is generally reserved for the minority of patients who have large third-degree or fourth-degree hemorrhoids, acutely incarcerated and thrombosed hemorrhoids, hemorrhoids with an extensive and symptomatic external component, or patients who have undergone less aggressive therapy with poor results.

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