Periodontal therapy is aimed at achieving restoration of tissues lost due to periodontal disease. The ultimate goal is regeneration of cementum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. There has been a constant effort to improve predictability by introduction of newer techniques. Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) is a promising method to achieve predictable periodontal regeneration. GTR allows and provides space for repopulation of certain cells on denuded root surface to enhance new attachment. One of the limitations of all regenerative procedures is low predictability but selection of cases and operator's skill yields better regeneration. This review discusses the principle, material science and applications of GTR
The ultimate goal of periodontal therapy is to restore the periodontal health by complete regeneration of the attachment apparatus. Though numerous methods of regeneration are available, researches are directed towards search for autologous materials considering the safety and availability issues. Among the various autologous material options, use of platelet concentrates have found to be more promising due to ease of procurement, handling and biochemical properties. This article throws limelight on the role of platelets on wound healing, preparation, mechanical properties, biochemical properties and clinical application of PRF in periodontal regeneration.
Dental caries is a disease that results in destruction of tooth structure called as carious lesions. The formation of carious lesion over a period of time is a sequel of alternating sequence of demineralization and remineralization of the hydroxyapatite crystals in the tooth structure. The yesteryears’ management was focused on the lesions alone, in the surgical model of ‘drill and fill’. Currently the disease prevention is receiving its due attention, a paradigm shift which is a result of a better and deeper understanding of the etiopathogenesis of carious disease. The formation of new lesions as well as remineralization of initial lesions are prevented by targeting various causative factors using biomaterials. These preventive materials and their current modifications are used in the non-operative treatment of caries, focusing on the preservation of the healthy tooth structure. This article highlights the latest advances in biomaterials used for the nonoperative treatment of dental caries.
Root canal therapy for the management of pulpo-periapical diseases involves three phases access to the pulp space, removal of the necrotic content from the canals and obturating the space with synthetic biomaterials. Majority of the failures in root therapy is attributed to the last phase of obturation. Persistence of infection or reinfection is mainly due to the re-establishment of the microbes in the canal space establishing through the interface between the natural root dentin and the artificial sealers and obturating materials. Thus the focus started on filling the space with the natural pulp and dentin structures in the root canal without resorting to synthetic materials. Thus emerged the concept of Pulpal Regeneration. Revascularization of the pulp, use of stem cell engineering are few concepts in this. This article focuses on the current tend and practice of pulpal regeneration and the biomaterials that are used for regeneration and tissue engineerings.
Prosthodontics is a specialty that involves the replacement and restoration of lost dental structures with artificial substitutes. Many biomaterials have been developed to satisfy the demands laid by the functional, esthetic requirements of the stomato-gnathic system. The considerable advancements in this particular field, have often left the practicing dentist perplexed with regards to the correct choice. This paper provides an overview of the key recent advancements and milestones in biomaterial science in prosthodontics
The practice of orthodontics requires professional skill in the design, application and control of corrective appliances to bring teeth, lips and jaws into proper alignment and to achieve facial balance. To achieve this desirable end, knowledge and skill of an orthodontist, is strongly supported by the use of various biomaterials. The materials used should possess not only adequate physical and mechanical strength to bring about biomechanical changes in the bone, but also should possess the biological properties to sustain in the harsh environment of the oral cavity. These material should also be able to maintain their metallurgical properties under stress and strain. This article highlights the recent advances in such materials used in orthodontics.
Adhesive restorative materials are tooth coloured materials that adhere to the enamel and dentin, either using the micro-mechanical retention or chemical bonding. Adhesion to tooth structure has obviated many of the disadvantages experienced with metallic materials providing better tooth-restorative margins, excellent aesthetics and ultra-conservation of tooth structure. Therefore, adhesive dentistry is considered as a vital breakthrough in restorative dentistry. If aesthetics and adhesions are their positive points, strength and wear resistance are their week points. In order to meet up to the standards of ideal bio mimetic material, exhaustive attempts are being made in rendering them as effective bioactive materials, by adding antibacterial property and remineralizing capacity. Nano technology, a revolution in science at large has played a pivotal role in overcoming the negative aspects of the adhesive restorative materials. This paper highlights few of the avenues where nanotechnology has effectively influenced the way the adhesive restorative materials perform.