Introduction: Road Traffic Accidents (RTA) are the only public health problem for which society and decision makers still accept death and disability among young people on a large scale. The demographic, epidemiological and economic transition in India has changed the health scenario in a significant way during the last two decades. Methods: An extensive search of all materials related to the topic was carried out in PubMed, Medline, World Health Organization website and Google Scholar search engines. Relevant documents, reports, research articles focusing on the distribution and determinants of Road Traffic accidents (RTA) published in the period 1994 2014 were included in the review. A total of 87 articles on Road traffic accidents were included in this study. Results: The distribution and multiple determinants of RTA were identified, of which non usage of safety measures like helmets and seatbelts and influence of alcohol plays a vital role. Conclusion: Based on this study it is evident that prevention and control of most of the modifiable factors can bring about a change in the statistics that would ensure our future to be safer.
Introduction: Household air pollution (HAP) is one of the major causes of morbidity and premature mortality in the developing world. India reported roughly 780, 000 premature deaths in 2016 from exposure to household air pollution (HAP) making it a leading cause of ill-health in India. Women are more vulnerable to health hazards from household air pollution exposure not only because they perform the household tasks for provision of energy, viz. gathering and processing fuel, cooking meals but also due to sheer time spent in the kitchen. Hence, this review was conducted with an objective to explore the impact of household air pollution on women's health and to recommend public health interventions and strategies to reduce the impact of HAP on health. Methods: An exhaustive search for all materials related to the topic was made in different search engines, including Pubmed, Google scholar, World Health Organization website and Government websites for a duration of 15 days. Relevant policy documents, systematic reviews and meta-analysis, case control studies, cohort studies, cross-sectional surveys, technical publication series and research articles, published in the period from 1995-2019 were included. Overall, 49 articles were selected based upon the suitability of the current review objectives and analyzed. Results: Various respiratory as well as non-respiratory illnesses were found to be attributed to household air pollution among women. Conclusion: As HAP can be prevented by use of cleaner fuels, effective interventions, in the form of advocacy, behavior change communication and technological interventions along with a strong political can tackle this menace in the long run.
Prescription analysis will help the medical professional to be aware of their prescription habits. Errors in prescribing medication can result in lengthy hospital stay, undue discomfort and disability or even increase in mortality. Early detecting and auditing will trigger warnings and encourage a diffusion culture of safe practice. Patient safety must be the first aim in every medical setting, thus learning from error and taking measures to prevent them will help in building safer health care system.
Abilash Sasidharannair Chandrakumari,
Dost Mohamed Khan
Background: Assessment of sperm morphology is an important criterion in determining the semen quality and it plays a major role in male infertility. Aim: To assess the morphological defects of the spermatozoa in patients with normal sperm counts. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out in a tertiary care centre for a period of one year. A total of sixty semen samples with normal sperm counts were included. Morphological assessments of spermatozoa were performed on smears stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin and Papanicolaou.stains. The defects were categorized based on the abnormalities in different parts such as head, middle piece and tail. Results: All cases 60 samples despite normal sperm count showed morphological defects. The percentage of defects ranged from 1% to 20% but none of the sample showed abnormality more than 20%. The most common defect observed was in the region of head (tapering head - 86.67%) followed by thick middle piece defect (71.67%). Ninety five percentages of cases showed multiple defects. Conclusions: Qualitative defects are observed in all patients with normal sperm counts
The incidence of hunger is on the rise in the last 3 years and it has matched the trends which were existing 10 years earlier. These estimates reflect that we are quite slow in our progress to reduce all forms of malnutrition. All these trends and reversal in progress is an eye-opener that prompt and urgent measures have to be taken to stall the same and accomplish the Sustainable Development Goal of zero hunger. A major proportion of the existing problem can be attributed to the climate changes, which have accounted for the reduced production of major crops. Amidst, the rising trends of food insecurity and high prevalence of different forms of malnutrition, there is a clear target that loads of work needs to be done in the global mission to leave no one behind and accomplish the goals on food security. In conclusion, the trends of hunger across the world are alarming and there is an immense need to have a focused plan to reduce the prevalence of hunger and implement measures to improve the nutrition status of all.