Tuberculosis is a pandemic, chronic infectious disease which affects more than 10 million people in the world. About 3.5% of patients of newly diagnosed have reported having multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The standard treatment of MDR-TB has many cons like high cost, less effectiveness, and more drug interactions. Thus, to overcome these disadvantages a new novel compound which belongs to the diarylquinolone group called bedaquiline has been developed as a part of combination therapy in adults with MDR-TB for its bactericidal activity. It mainly acts by inhibiting the adenosine triphosphate synthase enzyme of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This drug was introduced as a new addition to the standard TB regimen after 50 years.
Background: Esophageal malignancy is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in India. The most common malignancy of esophagus is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) followed by adenocarcinoma. But recently, an increase in incidence of adenocarcinoma owing to lifestyle modification has been observed. Other rarer varieties such as granular cell tumor (GCT) and carcinoid tumors are also reported more frequently in the recent literatures. Review of literature: Certain types of esophageal malignancies on evaluation were characteristically localized to specific areas. For example, SCC is more common in upper and middle esophagus owing to the nature of the lining epithelium, adenocarcinoma is prevalent in lower esophagus due to Barrett\'s metaplasia, and neuroendocrine tumors are frequently encountered in the lower end of esophagus due to the presence of endocrine cells. But rarer types of epithelial and mesenchymal lesions cannot be localized and diagnosed based on site alone. They require histopathological evaluation for confirmatory diagnosis. In the present review, we discuss the different types of malignancies encountered in esophagus, their incidence, histopathological findings, and theranostic value. Conclusion: The incidence of esophageal malignancy has shown an upward trend in the recent years. A thorough knowledge on the varieties of lesions possible in esophagus helps in providing an accurate diagnosis, which ultimately dictates the prognosis of the patient.
Introduction: India is home to a large number of under-five deaths and underweight children in the world, which is mainly because of improper breastfeeding practices. Breastfeeding is one of the most effective ways to ensure child health and survival. Lack of exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life contributes to over a million avoidable child deaths each year. Materials and methods: An extensive search of all materials related to the topic was carried out in PubMed, Medline, World Health Organization website, and Google Scholar search engines. Keywords used in the search included breastfeeding, colostrum, and infant. Overall, 30 articles were selected and analyzed. Results: Parameters like educational status, socioeconomic status, occupation, mode of delivery, the place of delivery, and exclusive breastfeeding had a significant impact on the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusion: The study participants had good knowledge about breastfeeding however, some gaps were observed with respect to their practices. The study concluded that the importance of increasing awareness among pregnant women about breastfeeding, and even gave impetus on the necessity of family support to aid mothers in showing adherence to the breastfeeding for the recommended duration.
Introduction: Plastic initially played a major role in conserving natural source from extension but later plastic pollution become a growing concern for nearly a decade, especially single use plastics. Various effects were taken to tackle the situation in different part of the world, among those were imposing ban, levy and policies. Very few studies have analyzed the policy and legislative that deal with plastic pollution generated by single-use plastics (SUP). This paper reviews various policies and strategies to reduce SUP and its public health impact. Materials and methods: To address the issues associated with SUP pollution, a literature review was done to assess current ban and policies. Search engine such as PubMed and Google Scholar were used. Apart from these search engine certain standardized web portal like WHO, UN reports and press and reports were included in the studies to know about the current policies, ban and legislations were included in the study. Results: effectiveness of various bans and levies were analyzed, various strategies which made it effective were found and impact of these ban and levies on public health were also identified of which high levy, tough enforcement and personal behavior has shown impact in reducing SUP whereas lack of continuous vigilance, self regulation by industries and illegally SUP production had led to failure to create impact by various bans and levy Conclusion: Based on this study, it is evident that more tougher enforcement, vigilance, and self-regulation along with motivations of the public may help to curb SUP pollution.
Roby T Koshy,
Background: Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) is the surgical management of choice for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). However, the results do not give optimal results due to the development of synechiae, which results in recurrence of the sinusitis. Intraoperative use of mitomycin C (MMC) reduces the incidence of postoperative development of synechiae in patients undergoing FESS. This review attempts to provide a brief overview for application of MMC during FESS. Materials and methods: In this article, we reviewed various randomized, clinical, and experimental trials conducted between 1990 and 2015 and which were published in various Indian and American journals. Literature search was conducted after using the key words endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS), triamcinolone acetonide, and MMC from Pubmed, Cochrane, Proquest, and Google Scholar. Conclusion: The topical use of MMC and triamcinolone acetonide was comparable in reducing the formation of synechiae and crusts in the postoperative period and thereby improving the outcome.