Background: The frequent use of dental radiography is one of the major causes of the increasing medical radiation exposure of the general population. Consequently, radiation protection is a topic of scientific and public concern. Aim: We evaluated the available research article on dental students\' awareness regarding radiation protection while taking dental radiography. Materials and methods: A scoping review was performed using the available databases. A total of 452 references were found. Only five primary studies assessing the dental students’ awareness about the radiation protection were included and analyzed. Results: Knowledge of dental students about the radiation protection principle, as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), varies from 37.4 to 70%. The knowledge about the regulatory authorities like ICRP, NCRP, and AERB ranges from 5 to 54%. Most of the selected articles show the knowledge about the digital radiography is below 50% (ranges from 23 to 47%) among the dental students. It is very surprising to know that the knowledge of the usage of protective devices like lead apron is very low among the dental students. It lies between 20% and 40%. The knowledge of usage of the personnel monitoring devices among the dental students is average. It ranges between 40% and 70%. Conclusion: Knowledge gaps concerning the awareness of radiation protection among the dental students are evident from published research. The knowledge on radiation protection can be improved by conducting seminars and workshops on radiation protection on dental radiography.
The word ‘stigma’ means a form of disgrace associated with a particular situation or person. Stigma has a significant detrimental effect on access to mental health care. It is wellknown that people with mental illness and their families experience stigma and discrimination. Studying stigma can aid in planning appropriate anti-stigma programs for patients, family members and for the community. A narrative literature review of research publications on stigma experienced by people with severe mental disorders and their caregivers was conducted by searching PubMed, ProQuest and Google Scholar databases. Both original research and review articles were included. A total of 114 papers were included. All papers presented some information regarding the various aspects of stigma and its impact among persons with mental illness and their caregivers. The level of intensity of stigma among mentally ill individuals and their caregivers ranges from moderate to high, and is greatly influenced by various sociodemographic and illness variables. Research literature implies the need for the alleviation of stigma to improve the overall mental health of the community.
Antituberculosis (anti-TB) drugs possess a variety of adverse effects, of which hepatotoxicity is the most common adverse effect as most of the anti-TB drugs are metabolized through the liver. Globally, the incidence of antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity (ATDH) ranges from 2% to 28% based on the definition of drug-induced liver injury, population of the study, and regimen of the treatment used. As documented in different studies, alcohol intake; elderly age; chronic liver disease; infections with hepatitis B virus (HBV), HCV, and HIV; advancement of TB; Asian ethnicity; female gender; concomitant use of enzyme-inducers; and poor nutritional status, were the possible risk factors for ATDH. Hepatic transaminase elevation without clinical presentation is a common and benign episode following anti-TB treatment, but symptomatic hepatotoxicity can be fatal without any intervention. Hepatotoxicity caused by antituberculous treatment (ATT) due to the combined use of drugs and long therapy period has been a major concern for clinical treatment. The rate of the liver injury due to ATT in developed and developing countries has been reported to be 4% and 39%, respectively. Hence, there is an urgent need to review the risk factors and predictors of hepatotoxicity identified in various studies so as to plan reliable clinical interventions for disease prevention or timely identification and to develop safer drug regimens.
M Bagavathi Vinuthi,
AV Dinesh Rajasekar,
S Vinoth Kumar,
CP Ganesh Babu
Background: Diabetes is a life-changing disease associated with the severe morbidity and also mortality. Among the diabetic patients, the prevalence of foot ulcers will usually be as high as 20%. These ulcers usually become infected, cause very high morbidity, and are the usual first step for lower extremity amputation. The holistic care of diabetic foot ulcers requires a multidisciplinary approach. Apart from blood sugar control, treatment of ulcer involves wound debridement, appropriate dressings, vascular maintenance, and control of infections. The most important factor in preventing amputation is a repeated education of the patient in foot care and to really look into factors associated with amputation. This review article is an attempt to identify the statistically significant risk factors leading to lower extremity amputation. Materials and methods: The research literature was searched for various studies reporting the risk factors for lower extremity amputation in patients with DFI. A systematic search of literature was conducted first in MEDLINE/PubMed and then in Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials till July 2019. This search retrieved 11 most relevant articles. The risk factors that led to LEA were studied and data were analyzed. Results: Based on the comparison, we have concluded that male preponderance, duration of diabetes, and vasculopathy were found to be statistically significant in majority of the studies.
Background: Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) comprise a diverse group of rare malignancies that arise from connective tissues. The natural course of STS is unpredictable and aggressive if not diagnosed at an early stage. Discussion: The subclassification of these tumors is important for prognosis and clinical management of patients. In the present review, we discuss the histomorphologic features of STS and its subtypes based on 2013 World Health Organization classification and throw light on the incidence and presentation of STS. Conclusion: The systematic approach to morphologic assessment of STS outlined in this review will lead to narrowing of differential diagnoses and pave way for effective diagnosis and implementation of treatment strategies.
Shruti P Hegde
DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10085-8107 |
Open Access |
How to cite |
How To Cite
How to cite this article:
Patil M, Sugantharaj V, Hegde SP. An Insight into the Role of Various Factors Involved in the Pathogenesis of Dry Eyes after Manual Small-incision Cataract Surgery: A Mini Review. 2019; 8 (2):51-53.
Background: A significant proportion of the patients develop symptoms of dry eyes following manual small-incision cataract surgery (MSICS). The pathogenesis of this complication remains unclear. Various studies have been done to study this and multiple mechanisms have been proposed. The idea of this review is to give a comprehensive insight to the factors involved in the pathogenesis of dry eyes after MSICS. An extensive electronic literature search was done using search engines such as PubMed and Google Scholar using the mesh terms/key words “Pathogenesis, postoperative dry eyes, manual small incision cataract surgery”. A total of 26 studies were included in the review. The various etiological factors were discussed in detail. The most common factors were noted. Conclusion: There are myriad factors involved in the occurrence of postoperative dry eye of which transection of corneal nerves during surgery and the use of postoperative topical medication with preservatives rank as the two most important causes.